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考研英语教育类阅读理解及参考答案

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  考研时期对于英语阅读理解的复习,包含了教育和科技等题型。下面是学习啦小编给大家整理的考研英语教育类阅读理解及参考答案,供大家参阅!

  考研英语教育类阅读理解及参考答案:A new Harvard study

  A new Harvard study shows that immigrant boys and girls fare very differently in the outside world

  When it comes to schooling, the Herrera boys are no match for the Herrera girls. Last week, four years after she arrived from Honduras, Martha, 20, graduated from Fairfax High School in Los Angeles. She managed decent grades while wor

  king 36 hours a week at a Kentucky Fried Chicken. Her sister, Marlin, 22, attends a local community college and will soon be a certified nurse assistant. The brothers are a different story. Oscar, 17, was expelled two years ago from Fairfax for carrying a knife and later dropped out of a different school. The youngest, Jonathan, 15, is now in a juvenile boot camp after running into trouble with the law. "The boys get sidetracked more," says the kids' mother, Suyapa Landaverde. "The girls are more confident."

  This is no aberration. Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys, according to the preliminary findings of a just-completed, five-year study of immigrant children--the largest of its kind, including Latino, Chinese and Haitian kids--by Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco of the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Though that trend holds for U.S.-born kids as well, the reasons for the discrepancy among immigrants are different. The study found that immigrant girls are more adept at straddling cultures than boys. "The girls are able to retain some of the protective features of [their native] culture" because they're kept closer to the hearth, says Marcelo Suarez-Orozco, "while they maximize their acquisition of skills in the new culture" by helping their parents navigate it.

  Consider the kids' experiences in school. The study found that boys face more peer pressure to adopt American youth culture--the dress, the slang, the disdain for education. They're disciplined more often and, as a result, develop more adversarial relationships with teachers--and the wider society. They may also face more debilitating prejudices. One teacher interviewed for the study said that the "cultural awareness training" she received as part of her continuing education included depictions of Latino boys as "aggressive" and "really macho" and of the girls as "pure sweetness."

  Gender shapes immigrant kids' experiences outside school as well. Often hailing from traditional cultures, the girls face greater domestic obligations. They also frequently act as "cultural ambassadors," translating for parents and mediating between them and the outside world, says Carola Suarez-Orozco. An unintended consequence: "The girls get foisted into a responsible role more than the boys do." Take Christina Im, 18, a junior at Fairfax who arrived from South Korea four years ago. She ranks ninth in a class of 400 students and still finds time to fix dinner for the family and work on Saturdays at her mother's clothing shop. Her brother? "He plays computer games," says Im.

  The Harvard study bears a cautionary note: If large numbers of immigrant boys continue to be alienated academically--and to be clear, plenty perform phenomenally--they risk sinking irretrievably into an economic underclass. Oscar Herrera, Martha's dropout brother, may be realizing that. "I'm thinking of returning to school," he recently told his mother. He ought to look to his sisters for guidance.

  By Arian Campo-Flores Newsweek; 7/1/2002, Vol. 140 Issue 1, p51, 2/3p, 1c

  注(1):本文选自Newsweek,7/1/2002,p51;

  注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象2005年真题Text 1。

  1.In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by

  [A]posing a contrast

  [B]justifying an assumption

  [C]making a comparison

  [D]explaining a phenomenon

  2.The statement “they also frequently act as ‘cultural ambassadors’”(Line two, Paragraph

  4) implies that

  [A]they work as a translator for their parents

  [B]they help their parents have a better understanding of the foreign culture

  [C]they encourage their parents to go into the outside world

  [D]their parents help them realize their dream of becoming an ambassador.

  3.Immigrant boys do not fare well in the outside world because of the following reasons,

  except that

  [A]American youth culture has a bad influence on the boys

  [B]people have prejudice against them

  [C]their sense of responsibility is not as strong as that of the girls

  [D]they do not get well along with the teachers and the outside world

  4.Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco have eventually found in their study that

  [A]the immigrant boys should not be allowed to go into the outside world

  [B]the immigrant boys have no judgment about the youth culture

  [C]the immigrant girls do a better job than the immigrant boys

  [D]the immigrant boys should be severely disciplined

  5.What can we infer from the last paragraph?

  [A]All the dropouts should receive good education.

  [B]Many immigrant boys are likely to fall into trouble in the future.

  [C]Schooling education has been neglected.

  [D]More attention should be paid to the immigrant children.

  答案:CBACB

  篇章剖析

  本文采用提出问题——分析问题的模式,指出移民中男孩子和女孩子在学业方面的表现差别很大,并进一步分析其原因,指出可能会造成的后果。文章第一段以马撒的兄弟姐妹为例,指出家中男孩和女孩在学业上的差别;第二段、第三段和第四段来分析造成这一现象的原因;第五段指出可能会造成的后果。

  词汇注释

  fare [feE(r)] vi进展;成功

  Carolina Herrera 卡罗琳娜•赫蕾拉,著名时装品牌创始人

  sidetrack [5saIdtrAk] vt.导入侧线, 转移目标, 使受牵制

  aberration [AbE5reIF(E)n] n.失常;偏差

  outperform [9aJtpE`fR:m] vt.做得比…好,胜过

  preliminary [prI5lImInErI; (?@) -nerI] adj. 预备的, 初步的

  discrepancy [dI5skrepEnsI] n. 相差, 差异, 矛盾

  adept at熟练于...

  straddle [5strAd(E)l] v. 跨骑

  navigate [5nAvI^eIt] vt. 航行于, 驾驶, 操纵, 使通过

  peer [pIE(r)] n. 同龄人;同事

  discipline [5dIsIplIn] v. 惩戒,惩罚

  adversarial [ 9AdvE`seErIEl] adj. 敌手的,对手的,对抗(性)的

  debilitate [dI5bIlIteIt] vt. 使衰弱, 使虚弱

  macho [5mB:tFEu] adj. 男子的,男子气的

  gender [5dVendE(r)] n. [语法] 性, <口>性别, 性, 性交

  hailing from来自,在某地生长

  mediate [5mi:dIeIt] v. 仲裁, 调停, 作为引起...的媒介, 居中调停

  foist [fCIst] vt. 偷偷插入, 使混入, 硬卖给, 私自添加, 把...强加(于), 把...塞(给)

  alienate [5eIlIEneIt] v. 疏远

  phenomenally [fI5nRmInElI] adv. 现象上地, 明白地;惊人地

  irretrievably [IrI5tri:vEb(E)li] adv. 不能挽回地, 不能补救地

  look to sb. for sth. 依赖或指望某人提供或做某事物

  难句突破

  1.Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys, according to the preliminary findings of a just-completed, five-year study of immigrant children--the largest of its kind, including Latino, Chinese and Haitian kids--by Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco of the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

  主体句式:Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys…

  结构分析:本句是一个简单句。according to意为“依据,按照”,来补充说明“Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys”这一结论缘自何处;“the largest of its kind”是study的同位语;including现在分词进一步修饰study; by表示这项研究是由谁来做的。

  句子译文:根据哈佛大学教育学研究生院的马赛罗和卡罗拉•苏瑞兹-欧罗科刚刚完成了一项历时五年的初步研究结果——这项研究是同类研究中规模最大的,研究对象为移民子女,其中包括拉丁美洲人、中国人和海地人,移民女孩子的表现一贯比男孩子出色。

  题目分析

  1.答案为C,属事实细节题。作者以马撒的兄弟姐妹为例,意在指出男孩和女孩在学业方面的不同表现,从而引出论题。

  2.答案为B,属推理判断题。从第二段"while they maximize their acquisition of skills in the

  new culture" by helping their parents navigate it.我们知道这些移民孩子的父母对新文化的理解、把握和适应还得益于孩子的帮助。原文对应信息是:“They also frequently act as "cultural ambassadors," translating for parents and mediating between them and the outside world, says Carola Suarez-Orozco.”从这句话我们可以看出"cultural ambassadors"的含义。

  3.答案为A,属事实细节题。选项B在文中的对应信息是第三段的“They may also face more

  debilitating prejudices.”;选项C在文中的对应信息是第四段的“the girls face greater domestic obligations”;选项D在文中对应的信息是第三段的“They're disciplined more often and, as a result, develop more adversarial relationships with teachers--and the wider society.”;只有选项A不正确,它的意思与文中对应的信息有出入,原文对应信息是第三段的“The study found that boys face more peer pressure to adopt American youth culture--the dress, the slang, the disdain for education.”

  4.答案为C,属事实细节题。文中第一段以对比手段入手,在第二段开头就引出了文章的

  论题。原文对应信息是“Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys, according to the preliminary findings of a just-completed, five-year study of immigrant children--the largest of its kind, including Latino, Chinese and Haitian kids--by Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco of the Harvard Graduate School of Education.”

  5.答案为B,属推理判断题。原文对应信息是“If large numbers of immigrant boys continue

  to be alienated academically--and to be clear, plenty perform phenomenally--they risk sinking irretrievably into an economic underclass.”

  参考译文

  哈佛大学一项新的研究结果表明,移民中男孩和女孩在外面世界的发展差别很大

  谈到学业问题,身穿赫蕾拉美仑美奂时装的男孩根本无法与穿同样时装的女孩相比。上周,也就是从洪都拉斯来到美国四年之后,20岁的马撒从洛杉矶的费尔法克斯高中毕业。尽管每周都要在肯德基快餐店工作36个小时,但是她还是取得了相当好的成绩。她的姐姐马林今年22岁,在当地的一所社区大学读书,不久就将成为一名有资格证书的助理护士。她兄弟们的情况就完全不一样了。17岁的奥斯卡两年前因为携带小刀被费尔法克斯学校开除,后又从另一所学校辍学。最小的乔纳森今年15岁,惹上官司后现在在青少年新兵训练营。“这些男孩子多不走正道,”孩子们的母亲苏雅帕•兰达沃尔德说,“而女孩子却越发自信了。”

  这非常合乎常规。根据哈佛大学教育学研究生院的马赛罗和卡罗拉•苏瑞兹-欧罗科刚刚完成了一项历时五年的初步研究结果——这项研究是同类研究中规模最大的,研究对象为移民子女,其中包括拉丁美洲人、中国人和海地人,移民女孩子的表现一贯比男孩子出色。虽然这种趋势在美国出生的孩子中也存在,但是在移民中产生这种差异的原因却是不相同的。研究发现,移民女孩子比男孩子更善于包容不同的文化。马赛罗•苏瑞兹-欧罗科说,“女孩子能保留本民族文化里的一些保护性特点”,因为女孩子跟家庭的关系更加紧密,所以在帮助父母跨越这一新文化的过程中,“她们最大限度地获取了新文化的技能”。

  我们再来考虑孩子们在学校的经历。研究发现,与女孩子相比,男孩子在接受美国年轻人文化——衣着、俚语以及对教育的蔑视等——方面面临更多的来自同龄人的压力。他们会受到更多的惩戒,因此,他们跟老师以及外界社会更容易发展成一种敌对关系。他们还可能会面对更多的使人意志衰弱的偏见。研究中接受采访的一位老师说,她所接受的继续教育中的“文化意识培训”部分把拉丁美洲男孩描述成“好斗的”、“真正大男子主义的”的人,而对女孩子的描述是“清纯可人”。

  性别也决定了移民孩子的课余生活经历。由于女孩子常常处在传统文化的氛围之中,她们要对家庭承担更多的责任。卡罗拉•苏瑞兹-欧罗科说,她们常常担当“文化大使”的角色,为她们的父母作作翻译,帮助他们与外部世界沟通。这产生了一种意想不到的结果:“与男孩子相比,女孩子不得不承担起更多的责任。”我们以克里斯蒂娜伊•殷为例。她今年18岁,四年前从韩国来到这里,现在是费尔法克斯中学三年级学生。在全班400名学生中,她排名第九位,但她还能抽出时间给她的家人做正餐,每周六还要在她妈妈的服装店里帮忙。她弟弟干什么呢?殷说,“他在打游戏。”

  哈佛大学的研究带着一种警示性口气:如果大量的移民男孩子在学业上继续荒废下去—说得清楚些,有很多人荒废得令人难以置信—他们将冒将来在经济上不可挽回地陷入底层社会的危险。马撒辍学的弟弟奥斯卡•赫雷拉可能已经认识到了这一点。他最近告诉他的母亲说,“我在考虑重新回到学校去。”他应该向他的姐姐们求教指导意见。

  考研英语教育类阅读理解及参考答案:YOU WIN

  YOU WIN! PAY BANK $140,000

  For parents, the scary part begins after the letter comes.

  As long as her parents can remember, 13-year-old Katie Hart has been talking about going to college. Her mother, Tally, a financial-aid officer at an Ohio

  university, knows all too well the daunting calculus of paying for a college education. Last year the average yearly tuition at a private, four-year school climbed 5.5 percent to more than $17,000. The Harts have started saving, and figure they can afford a public university without a problem. But what if Katie applies to Princeton (she's threatening), where one year's tuition, room and board--almost $34,000 in 2002--will cost more than some luxury cars? Even a number cruncher like Tally admits it's a little scary, especially since she'll retire and Katie will go to college at around the same time.

  Paying for college has always been a humbling endeavor. The good news: last year students collected $74 billion in financial aid, the most ever. Most families pay less than full freight. Sixty percent of public-university students and three quarters of those at private colleges receive some form of financial aid--mostly, these days, in the form of loans. But those numbers are not as encouraging as they appear for lower-income families, because schools are changing their formulas for distributing aid. Eager to boost their magazine rankings, which are based in part on the test scores of entering freshmen, they're throwing more aid at smarter kids--whether they need it or not.

  The best way to prepare is to start saving early. A new law passed last year makes that easier for some families. So-called 529 plans allow parents to sock away funds in federal-tax-free-investment accounts, as long as the money is used for "qualified education expenses" like tuition, room and board. The plans aren't for everyone. For tax reasons, some lower- and middle-income families may be better off choosing other investments. But saving is vital. When's the best time to start? "Sometime," says Jack Joyce of the College Board, "between the maternity ward and middle school."

  Aid packages usually come in some combination of grants, loans and jobs. These days 60 percent of all aid comes in the form of low-interest loans. All students are eligible for "unsubsidized" federal Stafford loans, which let them defer interest payments until after graduation. Students who can demonstrate need can also qualify for federal Perkins loans or "subsidized" Staffords, where the government pays the interest during school. Fortunately, this is a borrower's market. "Interest rates are at their lowest level in the history of student loans," says Mark Kantrowitz, publisher of Finaid. Kantrowitz expects rates to fall even further when they're reviewed this summer.

  Traditional scholarships, academic or athletic, are still a part of many families' planning. Mack Reiter, a 17-year-old national wrestling champion, gets so many recruiting letters he throws most away. He'll almost certainly get a free ride. Without it, "we would really be in a bind," says his mother, Janet. For everyone else, it's worth the effort to pick through local and national scholarship offerings, which can be found on Web sites like collegeboard.com.

  By Kevin Peraino With Pat Wingert and Karen Springen, in Chicago Newsweek; 4/8/2002, Vol. 139 Issue 14, p50, 2p

  注(1):本文选自Newsweek,4/8/2002,p50;

  注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象2004年真题Text 2.

  1.What does the author intend to illustrate with the example of the Harts?

  [A]the difficulty of paying the tuition

  [B]the far-sight of the parents

  [C]the promising future of Katie

  [D]the increasing tuition in the university

  2.What can we infer from the second paragraph?

  [A]Some families are too poor to pay the full amount of the tuition.

  [B]The parents do not favor the form of loans.

  [C]Paying the tuition makes the parents feel humble.

  [D]Those who are in great need may not get what they need.

  3.The last paragraph suggests that ___________.

  [A]many recruiting letters failed to provide Mack Reiter with scholarships

  [B]Mack Reiter wanted to help his family go out of the trouble

  [C]traditional scholarships are a good solution to the tuition problems in some families

  [D]Mack Reiter was very proud of his national wrestling championship

  4.What does the author mean by “better off”(Line 5, Paragraph 3)?

  [A]richer

  [B]wiser

  [C]happier

  [D]luckier

  5.Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A]The Harts prefer a public university to a private one.

  [B]It is much easier to pay the tuition at present.

  [C]All students can get the aid package.

  [D]Traditional scholarships are still attractive to some families.

  答案:ADCBD

  篇章剖析

  本文采用提出问题——分析问题的模式,指出支付高昂的大学学费对很多家庭来说都有些力不从心,以及一些助学贷款及其它资助项目所起的作用。第一段提出问题,以哈特家为例,说明支付大学学费对家庭造成的压力;第二段指出大多数家庭支付大学学费的方式以及存在的一些问题;第三段指出家庭存钱的作用;第四段指出资助项目的形式;第五段指出传统奖学金的吸引力。

  词汇注释

  daunting [5dC:ntIN]adj.使人畏缩的

  calculus [5kAlkjJlEs]n.微积分学, 结石

  tuition [tju:5IF(E)n; (?@) 5tu:-]n.学费

  number cruncher n.捣弄数字者;能够进行复杂、大量运算的人

  boost[bu:st]v.推进

  sock away把钱存放起来

  better off (doing something) adj.(对于做某事来说)是较为明智的

  maternity ward n.产科病房

  the College Board大学委员会

  eligible[5elIdVEb(E)l]adj.符合条件的,合格的

  defer[dI5f\:(r)]vt.使推迟, 使延期

  wrestling [5res(E)lIN]n.[体]摔跤

  in a bind adv.处于困境

  难句突破

  1.So-called 529 plans allow parents to sock away funds in federal-tax-free-investment accounts, as long as the money is used for "qualified education expenses" like tuition, room and board.

  主体句式:plans allow parents to sock away …

  结构分析:本句是个条件复合句。主句是529 plans allow parents to sock away funds,federal-tax-free-investment是一个复合名词; as long as引导条件从句,be used for 意为“用做某一目的”,like是介词,后跟名词,共同来修饰qualified education expenses.

  句子译文:这就是所谓的529方案。该方案准许父母把钱存在联邦免税投资账户上,但他们所存的钱只能用于支付类似学费、食宿费等“符合资格教育费用”。

  2.Without it, "we would really be in a bind,"

  主体句式:Without it, "we would really be in a bind,"

  结构分析:从without我们可看出此句是虚拟语气,in a bind是固定搭配,意思是“处于困境”。

  句子译文:要不是这样的话,那么“我们真的就陷入困境了。”

  题目分析

  1.答案为A,属推理判断题。原文对应信息是:“Even a number cruncher like Tally admits it's

  a little scary, especially since she'll retire and Katie will go to college at around the same time.”

  2.答案为D,属推理判断题。原文对应信息是:“Eager to boost their magazine rankings, which are based in part on the test scores of entering freshmen, they're throwing more aid at smarter kids--whether they need it or not.”

  3.答案为C,属推理判断题。原文对应信息是:“Traditional scholarships, academic or athletic,are still a part of many families' planning.”

  4.答案为B,属猜词题。文中提到的方案有助于存钱,但这样的方案并不适于每一个人,

  然后给出了其中的一个原因,来说明对于低收入和中等收入的家庭来讲,选择其它投资方式会比这种方式好。由此可猜出词义。

  5.答案为D, 属推理判断题。选项A意思不准确,文中提到公立大学和私立大学的学费问题,但并没有表明家长的态度和倾向;选项B意思不对,文中对应信息是第二段;申请贷款并不是无条件的,这是选项C的错误所在。

  参考译文

  你赢了!那就向银行付140,000美元吧!

  对父母来说,录取信到了以后,令人恐慌的事情也就随之开始了

  卡蒂的父母记得,13岁的卡蒂·哈特一直在谈论上大学的事。她的母亲塔利是俄亥俄大学的一名负责给学生贷款的工作人员,她对大学教育费用是一个多么令人心跳畏缩的数字再熟悉不过了。去年,私立四年制大学的年平均学费增长了5.5%,超过17,000美元。哈特家已经开始存钱了,估计支付公立大学的费用不成问题。但是,如果卡蒂要申请普林斯顿大学的话(她是这样威胁的),那该怎么办呢?上这样的大学一年的学费和食宿费在2002年大约是34,000美元,这比买几辆豪华轿车还贵。就连塔利这样搞数字工作的人也承认这真有点让人恐慌,尤其是她即将面临退休、卡蒂要上大学这两件事几乎在同时发生。

  支付大学费用一直都是让人难以启齿的尴尬事。有条好消息:去年学生获得的财政资助达740亿美元,这比以往获得的都多。大多数家庭都不是一次全部付清学费。60%的公立大学学生和四分之三的私立大学的学生要接受某种形式的财政资助——现在大多是以贷款的形式发放。但是这些数字对于那些低收入家庭来说,并不象它表面上看起来那样令人鼓舞,因为学校正在改变它们的资助发放方案。那些想急于提高其杂志排名的学校——学校排名在一定程度上取决于入学新生的成绩——把更多的资助给了成绩较好的学生——不管他们是否需要这种资助。

  最好的准备办法就是早点开始存钱。去年通过的一项新的法律使一些家庭存钱的方法变得容易了一些。这就是所谓的529方案。该方案准许父母把钱存在联邦免税投资账户上,但他们所存的钱只能用于支付类似学费、食宿费等“符合资格教育费用”。这一方案并不是对每一个人都适合。由于税收原因,对于那些低收入和中等收入家庭来说,如果选择其它的投资方向,他们会生活得更富裕些。但是存钱是头等大事。那么什么时候开始存钱最合适呢?大学委员会的杰克·乔伊斯说,“从产科病房开始到上中学这个阶段的任何时候都行。”

  一揽子资助计划通常以助学金、贷款和兼职相结合的形式提供。现在有60%的资助项目是以低息贷款形式提供的。所有学生都有资格获得联邦“非补贴性”斯戴福德贷款。这种贷款可以使学生把利息支付推迟到毕业以后。确实能证明经济上有困难的学生还有资格申请联邦帕金斯贷款或联邦“补贴性”斯戴福德贷款,这种贷款的利息在学生就读期间由政府偿付。所幸的是,现在是借方的市场。《资助》杂志出版商马克•坎特罗威茨说:“现在的利率是学生贷款史上最低的。”坎特罗威茨认为,今年夏天进行回顾评论时,利率可能还要降低。

  争取获得学术或体育等传统奖学金仍然是很多家庭计划的一部分。17岁的迈克·赖特是全国摔跤冠军,他收到了很多招收信,但大部分信都被他扔到了一边。他几乎肯定会获得全额免费。他的母亲珍妮特说,要不是这样的话,“我们真的就陷入困境了。”对于其他人来说,值得费些工夫去搜寻地方和国家提供的奖学金。这类奖学金可以在collegeboard.com这样的网站上找到。

  

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