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考研英语教育类阅读理解及参考答案：A new Harvard study
A new Harvard study shows that immigrant boys and girls fare very differently in the outside world
When it comes to schooling, the Herrera boys are no match for the Herrera girls. Last week, four years after she arrived from Honduras, Martha, 20, graduated from Fairfax High School in Los Angeles. She managed decent grades while wor
king 36 hours a week at a Kentucky Fried Chicken. Her sister, Marlin, 22, attends a local community college and will soon be a certified nurse assistant. The brothers are a different story. Oscar, 17, was expelled two years ago from Fairfax for carrying a knife and later dropped out of a different school. The youngest, Jonathan, 15, is now in a juvenile boot camp after running into trouble with the law. "The boys get sidetracked more," says the kids' mother, Suyapa Landaverde. "The girls are more confident."
This is no aberration. Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys, according to the preliminary findings of a just-completed, five-year study of immigrant children--the largest of its kind, including Latino, Chinese and Haitian kids--by Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco of the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Though that trend holds for U.S.-born kids as well, the reasons for the discrepancy among immigrants are different. The study found that immigrant girls are more adept at straddling cultures than boys. "The girls are able to retain some of the protective features of [their native] culture" because they're kept closer to the hearth, says Marcelo Suarez-Orozco, "while they maximize their acquisition of skills in the new culture" by helping their parents navigate it.
Consider the kids' experiences in school. The study found that boys face more peer pressure to adopt American youth culture--the dress, the slang, the disdain for education. They're disciplined more often and, as a result, develop more adversarial relationships with teachers--and the wider society. They may also face more debilitating prejudices. One teacher interviewed for the study said that the "cultural awareness training" she received as part of her continuing education included depictions of Latino boys as "aggressive" and "really macho" and of the girls as "pure sweetness."
Gender shapes immigrant kids' experiences outside school as well. Often hailing from traditional cultures, the girls face greater domestic obligations. They also frequently act as "cultural ambassadors," translating for parents and mediating between them and the outside world, says Carola Suarez-Orozco. An unintended consequence: "The girls get foisted into a responsible role more than the boys do." Take Christina Im, 18, a junior at Fairfax who arrived from South Korea four years ago. She ranks ninth in a class of 400 students and still finds time to fix dinner for the family and work on Saturdays at her mother's clothing shop. Her brother? "He plays computer games," says Im.
The Harvard study bears a cautionary note: If large numbers of immigrant boys continue to be alienated academically--and to be clear, plenty perform phenomenally--they risk sinking irretrievably into an economic underclass. Oscar Herrera, Martha's dropout brother, may be realizing that. "I'm thinking of returning to school," he recently told his mother. He ought to look to his sisters for guidance.
By Arian Campo-Flores Newsweek; 7/1/2002, Vol. 140 Issue 1, p51, 2/3p, 1c
1.In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by
[A]posing a contrast
[B]justifying an assumption
[C]making a comparison
[D]explaining a phenomenon
2.The statement “they also frequently act as ‘cultural ambassadors’”(Line two, Paragraph
4) implies that
[A]they work as a translator for their parents
[B]they help their parents have a better understanding of the foreign culture
[C]they encourage their parents to go into the outside world
[D]their parents help them realize their dream of becoming an ambassador.
3.Immigrant boys do not fare well in the outside world because of the following reasons,
[A]American youth culture has a bad influence on the boys
[B]people have prejudice against them
[C]their sense of responsibility is not as strong as that of the girls
[D]they do not get well along with the teachers and the outside world
4.Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco have eventually found in their study that
[A]the immigrant boys should not be allowed to go into the outside world
[B]the immigrant boys have no judgment about the youth culture
[C]the immigrant girls do a better job than the immigrant boys
[D]the immigrant boys should be severely disciplined
5.What can we infer from the last paragraph?
[A]All the dropouts should receive good education.
[B]Many immigrant boys are likely to fall into trouble in the future.
[C]Schooling education has been neglected.
[D]More attention should be paid to the immigrant children.
fare [feE(r)] vi进展;成功
Carolina Herrera 卡罗琳娜•赫蕾拉，著名时装品牌创始人
sidetrack [5saIdtrAk] vt.导入侧线, 转移目标, 使受牵制
aberration [AbE5reIF(E)n] n.失常;偏差
outperform [9aJtpE`fR:m] vt.做得比…好，胜过
preliminary [prI5lImInErI; (?@) -nerI] adj. 预备的, 初步的
discrepancy [dI5skrepEnsI] n. 相差, 差异, 矛盾
straddle [5strAd(E)l] v. 跨骑
navigate [5nAvI^eIt] vt. 航行于, 驾驶, 操纵, 使通过
peer [pIE(r)] n. 同龄人;同事
discipline [5dIsIplIn] v. 惩戒，惩罚
adversarial [ 9AdvE`seErIEl] adj. 敌手的,对手的,对抗(性)的
debilitate [dI5bIlIteIt] vt. 使衰弱, 使虚弱
macho [5mB:tFEu] adj. 男子的，男子气的
gender [5dVendE(r)] n. [语法] 性, <口>性别, 性, 性交
mediate [5mi:dIeIt] v. 仲裁, 调停, 作为引起...的媒介, 居中调停
foist [fCIst] vt. 偷偷插入, 使混入, 硬卖给, 私自添加, 把...强加(于), 把...塞(给)
alienate [5eIlIEneIt] v. 疏远
phenomenally [fI5nRmInElI] adv. 现象上地, 明白地;惊人地
irretrievably [IrI5tri:vEb(E)li] adv. 不能挽回地, 不能补救地
look to sb. for sth. 依赖或指望某人提供或做某事物
1.Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys, according to the preliminary findings of a just-completed, five-year study of immigrant children--the largest of its kind, including Latino, Chinese and Haitian kids--by Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco of the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
主体句式：Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys…
结构分析：本句是一个简单句。according to意为“依据，按照”，来补充说明“Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys”这一结论缘自何处;“the largest of its kind”是study的同位语;including现在分词进一步修饰study; by表示这项研究是由谁来做的。
2.答案为B，属推理判断题。从第二段"while they maximize their acquisition of skills in the
new culture" by helping their parents navigate it.我们知道这些移民孩子的父母对新文化的理解、把握和适应还得益于孩子的帮助。原文对应信息是：“They also frequently act as "cultural ambassadors," translating for parents and mediating between them and the outside world, says Carola Suarez-Orozco.”从这句话我们可以看出"cultural ambassadors"的含义。
3.答案为A，属事实细节题。选项B在文中的对应信息是第三段的“They may also face more
debilitating prejudices.”;选项C在文中的对应信息是第四段的“the girls face greater domestic obligations”;选项D在文中对应的信息是第三段的“They're disciplined more often and, as a result, develop more adversarial relationships with teachers--and the wider society.”;只有选项A不正确，它的意思与文中对应的信息有出入，原文对应信息是第三段的“The study found that boys face more peer pressure to adopt American youth culture--the dress, the slang, the disdain for education.”
论题。原文对应信息是“Immigrant girls consistently outperform boys, according to the preliminary findings of a just-completed, five-year study of immigrant children--the largest of its kind, including Latino, Chinese and Haitian kids--by Marcelo and Carola Suarez-Orozco of the Harvard Graduate School of Education.”
5.答案为B，属推理判断题。原文对应信息是“If large numbers of immigrant boys continue
to be alienated academically--and to be clear, plenty perform phenomenally--they risk sinking irretrievably into an economic underclass.”
YOU WIN! PAY BANK $140,000
For parents, the scary part begins after the letter comes.
As long as her parents can remember, 13-year-old Katie Hart has been talking about going to college. Her mother, Tally, a financial-aid officer at an Ohio
university, knows all too well the daunting calculus of paying for a college education. Last year the average yearly tuition at a private, four-year school climbed 5.5 percent to more than $17,000. The Harts have started saving, and figure they can afford a public university without a problem. But what if Katie applies to Princeton (she's threatening), where one year's tuition, room and board--almost $34,000 in 2002--will cost more than some luxury cars? Even a number cruncher like Tally admits it's a little scary, especially since she'll retire and Katie will go to college at around the same time.
Paying for college has always been a humbling endeavor. The good news: last year students collected $74 billion in financial aid, the most ever. Most families pay less than full freight. Sixty percent of public-university students and three quarters of those at private colleges receive some form of financial aid--mostly, these days, in the form of loans. But those numbers are not as encouraging as they appear for lower-income families, because schools are changing their formulas for distributing aid. Eager to boost their magazine rankings, which are based in part on the test scores of entering freshmen, they're throwing more aid at smarter kids--whether they need it or not.
The best way to prepare is to start saving early. A new law passed last year makes that easier for some families. So-called 529 plans allow parents to sock away funds in federal-tax-free-investment accounts, as long as the money is used for "qualified education expenses" like tuition, room and board. The plans aren't for everyone. For tax reasons, some lower- and middle-income families may be better off choosing other investments. But saving is vital. When's the best time to start? "Sometime," says Jack Joyce of the College Board, "between the maternity ward and middle school."
Aid packages usually come in some combination of grants, loans and jobs. These days 60 percent of all aid comes in the form of low-interest loans. All students are eligible for "unsubsidized" federal Stafford loans, which let them defer interest payments until after graduation. Students who can demonstrate need can also qualify for federal Perkins loans or "subsidized" Staffords, where the government pays the interest during school. Fortunately, this is a borrower's market. "Interest rates are at their lowest level in the history of student loans," says Mark Kantrowitz, publisher of Finaid. Kantrowitz expects rates to fall even further when they're reviewed this summer.
Traditional scholarships, academic or athletic, are still a part of many families' planning. Mack Reiter, a 17-year-old national wrestling champion, gets so many recruiting letters he throws most away. He'll almost certainly get a free ride. Without it, "we would really be in a bind," says his mother, Janet. For everyone else, it's worth the effort to pick through local and national scholarship offerings, which can be found on Web sites like collegeboard.com.
By Kevin Peraino With Pat Wingert and Karen Springen, in Chicago Newsweek; 4/8/2002, Vol. 139 Issue 14, p50, 2p
1.What does the author intend to illustrate with the example of the Harts?
[A]the difficulty of paying the tuition
[B]the far-sight of the parents
[C]the promising future of Katie
[D]the increasing tuition in the university
2.What can we infer from the second paragraph?
[A]Some families are too poor to pay the full amount of the tuition.
[B]The parents do not favor the form of loans.
[C]Paying the tuition makes the parents feel humble.
[D]Those who are in great need may not get what they need.
3.The last paragraph suggests that ___________.
[A]many recruiting letters failed to provide Mack Reiter with scholarships
[B]Mack Reiter wanted to help his family go out of the trouble
[C]traditional scholarships are a good solution to the tuition problems in some families
[D]Mack Reiter was very proud of his national wrestling championship
4.What does the author mean by “better off”(Line 5, Paragraph 3)?
5.Which of the following is true according to the text?
[A]The Harts prefer a public university to a private one.
[B]It is much easier to pay the tuition at present.
[C]All students can get the aid package.
[D]Traditional scholarships are still attractive to some families.
calculus [5kAlkjJlEs]n.微积分学, 结石
tuition [tju:5IF(E)n; (?@) 5tu:-]n.学费
number cruncher n.捣弄数字者;能够进行复杂、大量运算的人
better off (doing something) adj.(对于做某事来说)是较为明智的
maternity ward n.产科病房
the College Board大学委员会
in a bind adv.处于困境
1.So-called 529 plans allow parents to sock away funds in federal-tax-free-investment accounts, as long as the money is used for "qualified education expenses" like tuition, room and board.
主体句式：plans allow parents to sock away …
结构分析：本句是个条件复合句。主句是529 plans allow parents to sock away funds，federal-tax-free-investment是一个复合名词; as long as引导条件从句，be used for 意为“用做某一目的”，like是介词，后跟名词，共同来修饰qualified education expenses.
2.Without it, "we would really be in a bind,"
主体句式：Without it, "we would really be in a bind,"
结构分析：从without我们可看出此句是虚拟语气，in a bind是固定搭配，意思是“处于困境”。
1.答案为A,属推理判断题。原文对应信息是：“Even a number cruncher like Tally admits it's
a little scary, especially since she'll retire and Katie will go to college at around the same time.”
2.答案为D，属推理判断题。原文对应信息是：“Eager to boost their magazine rankings, which are based in part on the test scores of entering freshmen, they're throwing more aid at smarter kids--whether they need it or not.”
3.答案为C，属推理判断题。原文对应信息是：“Traditional scholarships, academic or athletic,are still a part of many families' planning.”