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Reading Comprehension for CET 6 In the 1962 movie Lawrence of Arabia,one scene shows an American newspaper reporter eagerly snapping photos of men looting a sabotaged train.One of the looters,Chief Auda abu Tayi of the Howeitat clan,suddenly notices the camera and snatches it.Am I in this?he asks,before
smashing it open.To the dismayed reporter,Lawrence explains,He thinks these things will steal his virtue.He thinks you're a kind of thief.
As soon as colonizers and explorers began taking cameras into distant lands,stories began circulating about how indigenous peoples saw them as tools for black magic.The ignorant natives may have had a point.When photography first became available,scientists welcomed it as a more objective way of recording faraway societies than early travelers' exaggerated accounts.But in some ways,anthropological photographs reveal more about the culture that holds the camera than the one that stares back.Up into the 1950s and 1960s,many ethnographers sought pure pictures of primitive cultures,routinely deleting modern accoutrements such as clocks and Western dress.They paid men and women to re-enact rituals or to pose as members of war or hunting parties,often with little regard for veracity.Edward Curtis,the legendary photographer of North American Indians,for example,got one Makah man to pose as a whaler with a spear in 1915--even though the Makah had not hunted whales in a generation.
These photographs reinforced widely accepted stereotypes that indigenous cultures were isolated,primitive,and unchanging.For instance,National Geographic magazine's photographs have taught millions of Americans about other cultures.As Catherine Lutz and Jane Collins point out in their 1993 book Reading National Geographic,the magazine since its founding in 1888 has kept a tradition of presenting beautiful photos that don't challenge white,middle-class American
conventions.While dark-skinned women can be shown without tops,for example,white women's breasts are taboo.Photos that could unsettle or disturb,such as areas of the world torn asunder by war or famine,are discarded in favor of those that reassure,to conform with the society's stated pledge to present only kindly visions of foreign societies.The result,Lutz and Collins say,is the depiction of an idealized and exotic world relatively free of pain or class conflict.
Lutz actually likes National Geographic a lot.She read the magazine as a child,and its lush imagery influenced her eventual choice of anthropology as a career.She just thinks that as people look at the photographs of other cultures,they should be alert to the choice of composition and images.
The British Medical Journal recently featured a strong response to what was judged an inappropriately lenient reaction by a medical school to a student cheating in an
examination.Although we have insufficient reliable data about the extent of this phenomenon,its prevention,or its effective management,much can be concluded and acted upon on the basis of common sense and concepts with face validity.
There is general agreement that there should be zero tolerance of cheating in a profession based on trust and one on which human lives depend.It is reasonable to assume that cheaters in medical school will be more likely than others to continue to act dishonestly with
The behaviours under question are multifactorial in origin.There are familial,religious,and cultural values that are acquired long before medical school.For example,countries,cultures,and subcultures exist where bribes and dishonest behaviour are almost a norm.There are secondary schools in which neither staff nor students tolerate cheating and others where cheating is
rampant;there are homes which imbue young people with high standards of ethical behaviour and others which leave ethical training to the harmful influence of television and the market place.
Medical schools reflect society and cannot be expected to remedy all the ills of a society.The selection process of medical students might be expected to favour candidates with integrity and positive ethical behaviour—if one had a reliable method for detecting such characteristics in advance.Medical schools should be the major focus of attention for imbuing future doctors with
integrity and ethical sensitivity.Unfortunately there are troubling,if inconclusive,data that suggest that during medical school the ethical behaviour of medical students does not necessarily improve;indeed,moral development may actually stop or even regress.
The creation of a pervasive institutional culture of integrity is essential.It is critical that the academic and clinical leaders of the institution set a personal example of integrity.Medical schools must make their institutional position and their expectations of students absolutely clear from day one.The development of a school's culture of integrity requires a partnership with the students in which they play an active role in its creation and nurturing.Moreover,the school's examination system and general treatment of students must be perceived as fair.Finally,the treatment of infractions must be firm,fair,transparent,and consistent.
Reading Comprehension A big focus of the criticism of computer games has concerned the content of the games being played.When the narratives of the games are analyzed they can be seen to fall into some genres. The two genres most popular with the children I interviewed were‘Platformers’ and
‘Beat-them-ups.’ Platform games such as Sonic and Super Mario involve leaping from platform to platform,avoiding obstacles,moving on through the levels,and progressing through the different stages of the game.Beat-them-ups are the games which have caused concern over their violent content.These games involve fights between animated characters.In many ways this violence can be compared to violence within children’ s cartoons where a character is hit over the head or falls of a cliff but walks away unscathed.
Controversy has occurred in part because of the intensity of the game play,which is said to spill over into children’ s everyday lives.There are worries that children are becoming more
violent and aggressive after prolonged exposure to these games.Playing computer games involves feelings of intense frustration and anger which often expresses itself in aggressive‘yells’ at the screen.It is not only the‘Beat-them-up’ games which produce this aggression;platform games are just as frustrating when the characters lose all their‘lives’ and‘die’ just before the end of the level is reached.Computer gaming relies upon intense concentration on the moving images on the
screen and demands great hand-to-eye coordination.When the player loses and the words‘Game over’ appear on the screen,there is annoyance and frustration at being beaten by the computer and at having made an error.This anger and aggression could perhaps be compared to the aggression felt when playing football and you take your eye off the ball and enable the opposition to score.The annoyance experienced when defeated at a computer game is what makes gaming
‘addictive’:the player is determined not to make the same mistake again and to have‘one last go’ in the hope of doing better next time.
Some of the concern over the violence of computer games has been about children who are unable to tell the difference between fiction and reality and who act out the violent moves of the games in fight on the playground.The problem with video games is that they involve children more than television or films and this means there are more implications for their social
behavior.Playing these games can lead to anti-social behavior,make children aggressive and affect their emotional stability.