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2020高中冲刺英语知识点复习

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  高中语法主要有主谓一致、冠词、代词、连词、介词、动词短语、情态动词、时态语态、虚拟语气、非谓语动词、形容词、副词、名词、动词、从句等。接下来是小编为大家整理的2020高中冲刺英语知识点复习,希望大家喜欢!

  2020高中冲刺英语知识点复习一

  各种时态的被动语态

  被动语态概述

  被动语态的概念:它是动词的一种形式,表示主语与谓语之间的执行或被执行关系。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,例如:They saw the little boy crying by the river.被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者,例如:The little boy was seen crying by the river.

  被动语态的构成

  被动语态的形式是由“助动词be+动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be随着主语的人称、数、时态等的不同而变化。几种常见时态的被动语态形式如下:

  1.一般现在时am/is/are+过去分词

  例如:Rice is planted in the south of China.

  2.一般过去时was/were+过去分词

  例如:These trees were planted the year before last.

  3.一般将来时will/shall+be+过去分词

  例如:A sports meeting will be held next week in our school.

  4.现在进行时am/is/are+being+过去分词

  例如:Your radio is being repaired now.

  5.过去进行时was/were+being+过去分词

  When he got there,the problem was being discussed.

  6.现在完成时have/has+been+过去分词

  His work has been finished.

  Has his work been finished? Yes,it has./No,it hasn’t.

  7.过去完成时had+been+过去分词

  注意:1.除了be之外的其它系动词如get,stay等也可以和过

  去分词构成被动语态。例如:Their questions haven’t got answered.

  2.含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态使用“情态动词+be+过去分词”结构。例如:

  More attention should be paid to the old in this country.

  This work can’t be done until Mr.Black comes.

  3.含有“be going to”,“be to”等结构的谓语,其被动语态分别用“be going to+be+过去分词”和“be to+be+过去分词”。例如:The problem is going to be discussed at the next meeting.

  All these books are to be taken to the library.

  4.被动语态与系表结构的区别:“连系动词+用作表语的过去分词”构成的系表结构,与被动语态的形式完全一样,所以应注

  意它们的区别。被动语态中的过去分词是动词,多强调动作;系表结构中的过去分词相当于形容词,多强调状态。前者通常可用by 引出动作的执行者,而后者则不可以。例如:

  The map was changed by someone.(被动结构)

  That custom remained unchanged for many centuries.(系表结构)

  系表结构中的过去分词通常可被very修饰,被动语态中的过去分词往往要用much修饰。

  例如:He was very excited.(系表结构)

  He was much excited by her words.(被动结构)

  5.主动形式表被动意义。有些动词的主动形式有被动意味,如 open,read,sell,shut,wash,wear,write等。此时句子的主语一般是物。

  例如:These books sell well.这些书很畅销。

  The door won’t shut.这门关不上。

  The clothes wash well.这些衣服很好洗。

  2020高中冲刺英语知识点复习二

  allow与permit

  1)用法相同

  allow / permit sb .to do sth .允许某人做某事

  allow / permit doing sth . 允许做某事。此时动词只用ing 形式。

  反义词forbid 具有同样用法。

  2)意义有异同

  许多情况下可换用,只是词意的强弱上有差异。allow语意较弱,含有―听任‖,―默许‖,―不加阻止‖的

  意思;permit 语意较强,强调―正式认可‖,―批准‖的意思。如:

  The nurse allowed him to remain there ,though it was not permitted.

  护士让他留在那里,虽然这时(规定)不允许的。

  amaze vt.使……惊奇 = astonish, surprise

  The news amazed us greatly.这条消息使我们感到很惊奇。

  拓展:(1)amazed人对……感到吃惊的;amazing(某物)……信人吃惊的。

  They were all amazed at the amazing news.

  听到这个令人吃惊的消息他们感到惊讶。

  (2)amazement n.

  to one’s amazement令人吃惊的是

  To my amazement, they have gone to Xishuangbanna.

  让我奇怪的是,他们去西双版纳了。

  类似短语:to one’s happiness/excitement/sadness/puzzlement

  使某人高兴的/兴奋的/伤心的/迷惑的是

  and so on : etc 等等。用来表示列举,但又不一一列出。

  He knows five foreign languages, English, French, Japanese and so on.他懂5种外语,如英语、法

  语、日语等等。

  announce, explain, introduce, declare后面不接双宾语,若以人作宾语常置于to后。如:

  The president announced to the workers the sad news.

  The president announced the sad news to the workers.

  总裁向工人宣布了那不幸的消息。

  He introduced the new comer to everyone here.

  他把新来的那个人介绍给这里的每个人。

  report to sb.向某人汇报:report sth/sb.to sb.向某人汇报/告诉。

  [应用]单句改错

  ①The teacher explained his students how to use the computer.

  ②No one declared us we could not smoke here.

  Key:①explain后加to ②declare后加to

  another day/the other day/some day/one day

  another day 可表示近期将来的某一天,意为―改天‖,也可表示过去将来某一动作或状态延续的―又一

  天‖。如:

  She is coming another day instead of today. 她今天不来,改天来。

  You may do it another day.

  你可以改天做这件事。

  He stayed there (for) another day/another two days after I lift.

  我离开后他在那又待了一天/两天。

  the other day 相当于a few days ago,意为―几天前、某天、那天、不久前‖,句中用一般过去时。如:

  I met her in the street the other day.几天前我在街上碰见过她。

  I bought the watch the other day.这手表我是几天前买的。

  some day指将来―总有一天、有朝一日、终将、(日后)某一天‖,谓语动词用一般将来时.如:

  Your wishes will come true some day.总有一天你的愿望会实现的。

  Some day you’ll have to pay for what you have done.

  总有一天你要为你的行为而付出代价的。

  one day可以表示―(过去)某一天‖,谓语动词常用一般过去式;也可表示―(将来)某一天‖,这时

  可与some day互相代替,谓语常用一般将来时。如:

  One day I went to see my first teacher ,but he happened to be out.有一天,我去看我的启蒙老师,

  可碰巧他出去了。

  He will understand the teacher one day/some day.将来有一天,他会理解老师的。

  anxious, eager

  两个词均有―渴望,急于‖之意。anxious 着重指焦急、着急或担心;而eager着重指对成功的期望或进取的热情。两者都多用作表语,其主语通常是人,不能以无生命的事物作主语。对比:

  He is eager to join the army.他渴望参军。

  He is anxious to know whether he has been chosen.

  他急于知道是否被选上了。

  常用搭配:

  ①be anxious to do sth.渴望急切地做某事;

  be anxious for渴望(了解、得到);

  be anxious about担心,对……感到不安

  ②be eager to do sth.急切地想做某事;

  be eager for (about, after)渴望,渴求,

  be eager for your help渴望得到你的帮助;

  be eager about peace渴望和平

  ①学生们都急切地想知道考试结果。

  The students ________ ________ ________ ________ the results ofthe examination.

  ②那个小男孩渴望得到一台新录音机。

  The little boy was ________ ________a new recorder.

  ③我很担心我儿子的健康

  I’m ________ ________my son’s health.

  ④他殷切希望女儿的成功。

  He is __________ _________ his daughter’s success.

  Key:①are, anxious(eager),to ,know

  ②anxious(eager),for

  ③anxious, about

  ④eager, for(about, after)

  apologize for doing sth.

  apologize是不及物动词,意为―道歉‖,其表达式为―apologize to sb.for sth.‖。如:

  You must apologize to your sister for being so rude.

  它的名词形式是apology, 复数形式是apologizes.

  make one’s apologies to sb. for sth.= make an apology to sb. for sth.如:

  He make his apologies to me for coming late.

  appear

  As a result, it appered to scientists on earth that the stars had moved.因此,地球上的科学家看来,

  恒星好像是移动了。

  句型:It appears/seems(to sb.) +that—clause.看来/似乎是……

  ①It appears to me that something is wrong.我看好像有点不大对头。

  ②It appears that he will the prize.看来他会得笑。

  2020高中冲刺英语知识点复习三

  宾语从句

  宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。

  1. 作动词的宾语

  (1) 由that引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如:

  I heard that be joined the army. 我听说他参军了。

  (2) 由what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如:

  a) She did not know what had happened. 她不知道发生了什么。

  b) I wonder whether you can change this note for me. 我想知道你是否能帮我改一下笔记。

  (3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如:

  She told me that she would accept my invitation. 她对我说她会接受我的邀请。

  2. 作介词的宾语,例如:

  Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 我们的成功取决于我们之间的合作。

  3. 作形容词的宾语,例如:

  I am afraid (that) I've made a mistake. 我恐怕我已经犯了一个错误。

  注意:that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语:anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类词后的that 从句的看作原因状语从句。

  4. it 可以作为形式宾语

  it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语that 从句则放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 例如:

  We heard it that she would get married next month. 我听说她下个朋就会结婚了。

  5. 后边不能直接跟that 从句的动词

  这类动词有allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive等。这类词后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不可以用that引导的宾语从句。如:

  正确表达:I admire their winning the match.

  错误表达:I admire that they won the match.

  6. 不可用that从句作直接宾语的动词

  有些动词不可用于“动词+间接宾语+that从句”结构中,常见的有envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate等。例如:

  正确表达:He impressed the manager as an honest man.

  错误表达:He impressed the manager that he was an honest man.

  7. 否定的转移

  若主句谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。例如:

  I don't think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。

  表语从句

  表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。引导表语从句的that常可省略。另外,常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。例如:

  1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.

  2) This is why we can't get the support of the people.

  3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes.

  4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

  同位语从句

  同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。

  1. 同位语从句的功能

  同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由that引导,例如:

  1) The king's decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people.

  2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.

  2. 同位语在句子中的位置

  同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例如:

  He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

  3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别

  (1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。

  (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:

  1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)

  2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)


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