学习啦>学习英语>英语单词>《分词作状语用法归纳总结》正文

分词作状语用法归纳总结

时间:2015-10-14 13:45:20本文内容及图片来源于读者投稿,如有侵权请联系xuexila888@qq.com 楚欣 我要投稿

  分词分为现在分词 和过去分词 两种,是一种非谓语动词 形式。现在分词和过去分词主要差别在于:现在分词表示“主动和进行”,过去分词表示“被动和完成”(不及物动词的过去分词不表示被动,只表示完成)。分词可以有自己的状语、宾语 或逻辑主语等。 以下是小编为大家整理的分词的用法总结,希望能帮助大家更好地认识分词,提高英语水平。

  一、现在分词短语作时间状语有以下三种情况:

  1.分词动作一发生,谓语动作紧跟着发生,这时用现在分词的一般式作时间状语,其逻辑主语为句中的主语。常用的动词,如:hear, see, arrive, return, get to, look, open, close, leave, turn around, walk等,表示一个极短暂动作。

  此种情况可以换作on+动名词,表示相同的意思。译作"一(刚)……就……"。

  此种情况也可以换作是when引导的时间状语从句,该从句的动词多用一般过去时表示。 如:Hearing their teacher's voice, the pupils stopped talking at once.(= On hearing their teacher's voice… = When they heard their teacher's voice, the pupils…)一听到教师的声音,学生们立即停止讲话。

  2.谓语动作发生在分词所表示的动作过程之中,则用when /while+现在分词的一般式,分词的逻辑主语为句中的主语。此种情况可以用in+动名词的一般式代替。也可以换作when、while引导的时间状语从句,该从句的谓语动词用进行时态。如:

  Don't be careless when /while having an exam. = Don't be careless in having an exam. = Don't be careless when / while you are having an exam. 考试时不要粗心。

  注:此结构中,不能用其他连接词替换when或while。

  3.分词所表示的动作完成之后,谓语动作才发生,则要现在分词的完成式,即having done的形式。分词的逻辑主语应是句中的主语。

  这种情况可以用after+动名词的一般式表示。

  这种情况也可以用after /when引导的时间状语从句来替换,该从句的谓语动词用过去完成式。 如:Having finished his homework the boy was allowed to watch TV play.

  After having finished his homework, the boy…

  After /when he had finished his homework, the boy…

  二、现在分词在句中作原因状语

  1.分词短语在句中作原因状语时,相当于一个原因状语从句。与时间状语一样,也要注意分词所表示的动作与谓语动作的先后关系。当分词所表示的动作与谓语动作同时发生或几乎同时发生时,用分词的一般形式。此时分词的逻辑主语须是句中的主语。这样的原因状语可以换成because, as引导的原因状语,该从句谓语动词用一般过去时。

  Not knowing how to work out the difficult physics problem, he asked the teacher for help.

  因为不知道如何解这道物理难题,他求助老师。

  = Because he didn't know how to work out the difficult physics problem, he asked…help.

  2.当分词表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前,可以用现在分词的完成式在句中作原因状语,其逻辑主语须为句中的主语,该短语的作用相当于一个原因状语从句。该从句的谓语动词须用完成时。如:

  Having lived with the girl for 5 years, we all know her very well.

  = Because we have lived with the girl for 5 years, we all know her very well.因为与那个女孩一起生活了五年,我们都非常了解她。

  三、现在分词短语在句中可以作条件状语,其逻辑主语须为句中的主语,该短语相当于一个条件状语从句。

  Working hard, you'll succeed. = If you work hard, you'll succeed. 如果你努力工作,你会成功的。

  Turning to the left, you will find the path leading to the park.

  = If you turn to the left, you will find the path leading to the park.如果转向左边,你将找到通向公园的小道。

  四、分词短语在句中作让步状语

  分词短语在句中作让步状语时,相当于一个让步状语从句,有时分词前可以带有连接词although, whether, even if, even though。

  现在分词短语作让步状语,分词的逻辑主语是句中的主语,变成状语从句时,需用主动语态。

  Weighing almost one hundred jin the stone was moved by him alone.

  = Although the stone weighted almost one hundred jin, it was moved by him alone. 虽然那块石头重将近一百斤,他一个人就把它挪动了。

  五、分词短语在句中作结果状语

  现在分词短语在句中可以作结果状语,它的逻辑主语便是句中的主语,该短语相当于一个结果状语从句,且用主动语态。分词短语在句中作结果状语时,通常位于句末,中间有逗号。有时为了加强语气,就在分词前加thus。

  Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing the delay.

  = Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus it caused the delay. 他们的车遇上交通阻塞,因而耽误了。

  六、分词短语在句中表示方式或伴随情况

  分词短语表示方式或伴随情况是比较常见的。它用来说明动作发生的背景或情况。一般情况下,现在分词所表示的动作与谓语所表示的动作同时发生,它的逻辑主语就是句中的主语,谓语动词作为主要动作,而现在分词表示一个陪衬动作,它没有相应的状语从句可以转换,但可以用并列句来转换。过去分词可以说明谓语动作的背景。过去分词与其逻辑主语之间有动宾关系。如:

  The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily.

  The children laughed and talked merrily, and they ran out of the room. 那些孩子们跑出房间,愉快地笑着、说着。

  Helped by their teacher, the students finished the task successfully. 在老师的帮助下,学生们成功地完成了任务。

 

  If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.

  -> Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.

  假如多给些照顾,那些树会长得更好。

  As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.

  -> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.

  由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了电话。

  典型例题

  1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.

  A. Followed  B. Followed by  C. Being followed  D. Having been followed

  答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为:                

        With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.

  2)_______, liquids can be changed into gases.

  A. Heating  B. To be heated  C. Heated  D. Heat

  答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated,…

  3)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.

  A. followed  B. following  C. to be followed  D. being followed

  答案B. 由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动。用现在分词。

  注意: 选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。

  (Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.

  由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。

  Using the book, I find it useful.

Copyright @ 2006 - 2018 学习啦 All Rights Reserved

学习啦 版权所有 粤ICP备15032933号-1

我们采用的作品包括内容和图片全部来源于网络用户和读者投稿,我们不确定投稿用户享有完全著作权,根据《信息网络传播权保护条例》,如果侵犯了您的权利,请联系:xuexila888@qq.com,我站将及时删除。

学习啦 学习啦

回到顶部