学习啦【英语美文欣赏】 编辑：韦彦 发布时间：2016-09-18
Declaration of Independence
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. —That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, —That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience has shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them
under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. —Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
A Tribute to the Dog
The best friend a man has in the world may turn against him and become his enemy. His son ordaughter that he has reared with loving care may prove ungrateful. Those who are nearest anddearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name, may becometraitors to their faith.The money that a man has he may lose. It flies away from him, perhapswhen he needs it most. A man’s reputation may be sacrificed in a moment of ill-consideredaction. The people who are prone to fall on their knees to do us honor when success is with usmay be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure settles its cloud upon our heads. Theone absolutely unselfish friend that man can have in this selfish world, the one that neverdeserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is his dog. A man’s dogstands by him in prosperity and in poverty, in health and in sickness.
He will sleep on the cold ground, where the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, ifonly he may be near his master’s side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer; he will lickthe wounds and sores that come from encounter with the roughness of the world. He willguard the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince.
When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wings and reputation falls topieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journeys through the heavens. If fortunedrives the master forth, an outcast in the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dogasks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him, to guard him against danger, to fightagainst his enemies. And when the last scene of all comes, and death takes the master in itsembrace, and his body is laid away in the cold ground, no matter if all other friends pursuetheir way, there by the grave will the noble dog be found, his head between his paws, his eyessad but open in alert watchfulness, faithful and true even in death.
Knowledge and Progress
Why does the idea of progress loom so large in the modern world?
Surely because progress of a particular kind is actually taking place around us and is becomingmore and more manifest. Although mankind has undergone no general improvement inintelligence or morality, it has made extraordinary progress in the accumulation ofknowledge. Knowledge began to increase as soon as the thoughts of one individual could becommunicated to another by means of speech. With the invention of writing, a great advancewas made, for knowledge could then be not only communicated but also stored.
Libraries made education possible, and education in its turn added to libraries: the growth ofknowledge followed a kind of compound interest law, which was greatly enhanced by theinvention of printing. All this was comparatively slow until, with the coming of science, thetempo was suddenly raised. Then knowledge began to be accumulated according to asystematic plan. The trickle became a stream; the stream has now become a torrent.
Moreover, as soon as new knowledge is acquired, it is now turned to practical account. What iscalled “modern civilization” is not the result of a balanced development of all man's nature, butof accumulated knowledge applied to practical life.The problem now facing humanity is: What isgoing to be done with all this knowledge? As is so often pointed out, knowledge is a two-edgedweapon which can be used equally for good or evil. It is now being used indifferently for both.Could any spectacle, for instance, be more grimly weird than that of gunners using science toshatter men's bodies while, close at hand, surgeons use it to restore them? We have to askourselves very seriously what will happen if this twofold use of knowledge, with its ever-increasing power, continues.
Address by Engels
On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceasedto think.He had been left alone for scarcely two minutes, and when we came back we found himin his armchair, peacefully gone to sleep—but forever.An immeasurable loss has been sustainedboth by the militant proletariat of Europe and America, and by historical science, in the death ofthis man. The gap that has been left by the departure of this mighty spirit will soon enoughmake itself felt.Just as Darwin discovered the law of development of organic nature,so Marxdiscovered the law of development of human history: the simple fact, hitherto concealed byan overgrowth of ideology,
that mankind must first of all eat, drink, have shelter and clothing, before it can pursuepolitics, science, art, religion, etc.;that therefore the production of the immediate materialmeans of subsistence and consequently the degree of economic development attained by agiven people or during a given epoch form the foundation upon which the state institutions,the legal conceptions, art, and even the ideas on religion, of the people concerned have beenevolved, and in the light of which they must, therefore, be explained, instead of vice versa, ashad hitherto been the case. But that is not all. Marx also discovered the special law of motiongoverning the present-day capitalist mode of production
and the bourgeois society that this mode of production has created. The discovery of surplusvalue suddenly threw light on the problem, in trying to solve which all previous investigations,of both bourgeois economists and socialist critics, had been groping in the dark. Two suchdiscoveries would be enough for one lifetime. Happy the man to whom it is granted to makeeven one such discovery.But in every single field which Marx investigated—and he investigatedvery many fields, none of them superficially—in every field, even in that of mathematics, hemade independent discoveries.