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专四英语语法句子成分分析

学习啦【英语优美段落】 编辑:韦彦 发布时间:2016-09-10

  对于句子成分在英语语法中的地位和作用、对它理解乃至对它的教学方法可谓仁者见仁,智者见智。下面是学习啦小编带来的专四英语语法句子成分分析,欢迎阅读!

  专四英语语法句子成分分析精选

  新增题型有句子成分、句意理解及语法功能。

  一、句子成分

  如:which of the italicized parts functions as an object?

  a. he doesn’t like the idea of my speaking at the meeting.

  b. it is no use your pretending not to know the matter.

  c. my parents strongly object to my going out alone at night.

  d. her falling into the river was the climax of the whole trip.

  [答案] c

  [译文] 下列哪个句子中斜体的部分作宾语?

  [解释] a 中斜体部分为介词短语修饰名词;b 中斜体部分为主语从句;c 中斜体部分为宾语,故为本题答案;d 中斜体部分为主语。

  二、句意理解

  认真对比题干选项,分辨出语义相同和不同的选项。如:

  “the man preparing the documents is the firm’s lawyer” has all the following possible meanings except ?

  a. the man who has prepared the documents„

  b. the man who has been preparing the documents„

  c. the man who is preparing the documents„

  d. the man who will prepare the documents„

  [答案] d

  [译文] 下列哪个选项的意思与“the man preparing the document is the firm’s lawyer”不一致?

  [解释] 本题考查现在分词结构与定语从句的替换。现在分词表达现在时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时,但不能表达将来时。

  三、语法功能

  还有些考题考查选项中的句子或句子中特定成分的语法功能。这类考题需要熟练掌握句子的结构分析和句意分析,扎实掌握核心语法中的各项语法规则。 which of the following italicized phrases indicates purpose?

  a. she said it for fun, but others took her seriously.

  b. for all its effort, the team didn’t win the match.

  c. linda has worked for the firm for twenty years.

  d. he set out for beijing yesterday.

  [答案] a

  [译文] 下列斜体的短语中,哪一个表示目的?

  [解释] a意为“她是说着好玩的,但是其他人当真了。”,本句中for fun表示目的; b意为“尽管非常努力,他们还是没能赢得这场比赛。”,本句中forall its effort表示转折;

  c意为“琳达在那家公司工作了二十年。”,本句中for twenty years表示时间段; d意为“昨天,他动身前往北京。”,本句中for beijing表示方向。因此,a为本题答案。

  一、双宾语

  英语中,有些及物动词可接两个宾语(双宾语),即指人的间接宾语和指物的直接宾语。常用句型为:主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语。如:

  give me a cup of tea, please. 请给我一杯茶。

  有时,间接宾语也可改为由介词to或for引起的短语,放在直接宾语的后面。如:she passed him the salt. =she passed the salt to him. 她把盐递给了他。

  her uncle bought her an english-chinese dictionary yesterday. = her uncle bought an english-chinese dictionary for her yesterday. 昨天,她叔叔给她买了一本英汉词典。 下面几种情况,通常要用介词to或for引起的短语:

  1. 当直接宾语是人称代词(it/them)时。如:

  the watch is li leis. please give it to him. 这块手表是李雷的。请把它给他。

  2. 当强调间接宾语时。如:

  mother cooks breakfast for us every day. 母亲每天都为我们做早饭。

  3. 当间接宾语比直接宾语长时。如:

  on the bus, he often gives his seat to an old person. 在公共汽车上,他经常把座位让给老人。 注:由to连接间接宾语的动词有:pass, give, show, tell, lend, take等;由for连接间接宾语的动词有:buy, cook, get, sing, make等。

  可用下面方法来判断一个及物动词所带的是双宾语还是复合宾语:如果宾语与其后的成分之间存在着逻辑上的主谓或主表关系,则该动词接的是复合宾语,否则就是双宾语。

  专四英语语法句子成分分析阅读

  复合宾语

  英语中,有些及物动词接宾语后还需接宾语补足语来补充说明宾语的有关情况,这样意思才完整。宾语和宾语补足语合称复合宾语。常用句型为:主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语。可用作宾语补足语的有名词、形容词、现在分词、动词不定式、介词短语等。

  1. 接名词作宾语补足语的动词常见的有call, name, think, make等。如: we call them mooncakes.

  2. 接形容词作宾语补足语的动词常见的有make, keep, think, find等。如: at first i found chinese hard. 开始的时候,我发现汉语很难。

  3. 动词不定式作宾语补足语时通常分为下面三种情况:

  2)接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词常见的有hear, see, watch, let, make等。如: he made us laugh. 他使我们大笑。

  3)接带to或不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词常见的是help。如:

  she often helps her mother(to) do some housework. 她经常帮母亲做家务活。

  4. 接现在分词作宾语补足语的动词常见的有watch, see, hear, find, keep等。如:in the country, he can hear birds singing. 在农村,他能听到鸟儿歌唱。

  5. 接介词短语作宾语补足语的动词常见的有find, keep, take等。如:

  the boy found his pen on the floor. 这个男孩在地板上找到了他的钢笔。

  同源宾语

  一、概念:

  少数不及物动词后面能跟一个特定的名词作宾语,这个名词和前面的动词在词根上是相同的或者在意义上是相近的,这样的宾语就叫做同源宾语(cognate object)。

  含义:只有名词担任的能重复动词部分或全部意思的直接宾语,前面常有修饰语

  二、用法:

  1.常见的能带同源宾语的动词有:lead, live, die, sleep, dream, breathe, smile, laugh, fight, run, sing等。

  例如:a. under the leadership of the party, the peasants are living a happy life.在党的领导下,现在农民们过着幸福的生活。

  b. i dreamed a terrible dream last night. 昨晚,我做了一个恶梦。

  c. our soldiers fought a wonderful fight against the floods last august.

  去年八月份,我们的战士与洪水作斗争,打了一个漂亮仗。

  d. he died a heroic death. 他英勇地死去。

  2. 同源宾语前面可带形容词作定语。这时,“动词+定语+同源宾语”的结构在意义上相当于“动词+与定语意义相同的状语”。二者相比,前者语气更强一些。

  professor smith died a sudden death last wednesday.

  (= professor smith died suddenly last wednesday.)

  史密斯教授上星期三突然去世了。

  注意:同源宾语前面通常带有定语。

  e.g.:fight a good fight

  breathe a deep breath

  laugh a foolish laugh

  smile a forced smile

  3. 同源宾语的修饰语是形容词最高级或含有最高级意义时,该同源宾语常可以省去。e.g.:you should run your fastest(race).你应该尽快地跑。

  the old man breathed his last(breath)this morning.那位老人今天早晨停止呼吸,撒手西去了。

  专四专四英语语法句子成分分析分析学习

  一、英语中的句子成分分析

  imetmybestfriendtom at the ststion yesterday.

  主语 谓语 定语 宾语同位语 状语

  1、主语:是一句的主体,是全句诉说的对象,常用名词、数词或代词担任(是全句谈论的中心话题)。例:

  (1) students syudy.(名词) (2)we are fridends.(代词) (3)to go to good university is his first goal.(不定式)

  (4)doing morning exercise is good for your health.(动名词) (5)jane is good at playing the piano. (6)four plus four is eight.

  2、谓语:是对主语加以陈述,表示主语的行为或状态,常用动词或动词词组担任,放在主语的后面(主语做什么了、怎么了)。例:

  (1)students study.(实意动词) (2)we are friends.(be动词) (3)we love china .(4)he can speak english.(复合谓语) 3、宾语:表示行为的对象,常由名词或代词担任,放在及物动词或代词之后(动作的对象,目标;位于及物动词之后)。 (a)hegave 间接宾语直接宾语

  (b)please pass me the book. (c)he bought me some flowers. (1)(3) (2) 4、宾语补足语:是对宾语进行补充说明,宾语和宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。5、定语:是用来说明或者限制名词的成分,常用形容词或者相当于形容词的短语或从句担任(是用来说明名词或代词性质特点的词)。 (1)this is a red sun. (2)the black bike is mine.

  (3)he is a tall boy. (4)she is a chemistry teacher. (5)the lady who is wearing red dress is our new teacher.

  6、状语:是用来说明动词,形容词,副词、介词短语或整个句子的成分,常由副词担任。

  (1)the students study hard. (2)i often write to him.

  (3)the bag is too heavy. (4)i will be back in a while.

  (1) this table is long . the apple tastes sweet.

  (2) the war was over . they seem to know the truth.

  通常情况下,主语和宾语前的成分是定语,谓语前的成分是状语,时间作状语放在句子的后面。

  (定语)主语(状语)谓语(定语)宾语(状语)。 (1)(the tall)boy(often)go(to the big)zoo. (2)(the happy)child-went(his)home yesterday.

  英语五种基本句型: 基本句型一:s+v (主+谓) 基本句型二:s+v+p(主+系+表) 基本句型三:s+v+o(主+谓+宾)

  基本句型四:s+v+o+o (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

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