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生物英文文章翻译

学习啦【英语文摘】 编辑:韦彦 发布时间:2016-08-27

  专业英语生物专业的科研工作者在知识领域进行深入探索的一个强有力的工具。下面是学习啦小编带来的生物英文文章翻译,欢迎阅读!

  生物英文文章翻译1

  美国应叫停生物燃料生产

  The worst drought for 50 years is inflicting huge damage on the US maize crop, with seriousconsequences for the overall international food supply.

  美国玉米作物正受到50年来最严重旱情的巨大破坏,使国际粮食总体供应情况受到了重大影响。

  The situation reminds us that even the most advanced agricultural systems are subject to thevagaries of the weather, leading to volatility in supplies and prices not just on domesticmarkets but also internationally. Climate change and extreme weather events will furthercomplicate the picture.

  当前形势提醒我们,即使是最发达的农业体系也无法摆脱天气无常的影响,这不仅会导致国内市场供给和价格波动,还会波及国际市场。气候变化和极端天气现象更使情况雪上加霜。

  US maize production had been expected to increase to record levels this year. That view willprove optimistic. Much of the reduced crop will be claimed by biofuel production in line with USfederal mandates, leaving even less for food and feed markets. The August US Department ofAgriculture estimates, announced today, will give a more precise idea for just how much themaize crop is reduced. Few people are expecting good news.

  人们原本预料,今年美国玉米产量将打破历史最高纪录。事实证明这种观点过于乐观了。根据联邦法令,歉收的玉米中,相当大一部分将被用于生产生物燃料,因而进入粮食和饲料市场的玉米就更少了。

  Maize prices have already gone higher than their 2008 and 2011 peaks, increasing by 23 percent during July alone. Wheat prices have followed maize prices upwards. Repercussions arealready being felt in the US livestock sector.

  近期玉米价格已经超过了2008年和2011年的峰值,单是7月份就上涨了23%。而小麦价格则追随玉米价格上涨。美国畜牧业已经感受到了价格上涨的冲击。

  Unsurprisingly, the media has started talking about the possibility of a food crisis. Whether thathappens depends not only on how long the drought lasts and how much damage it does tocrops but on how far its impact spreads to other markets, whether there are further supplyshocks and how countries react to the price movements.

  媒体已经开始谈论出现粮食危机的可能性,这一点都不令人惊讶。是否会发生粮食危机不仅取决于旱情持续时间有多长、对农作物的伤害有多大,也取决于其影响向其他市场扩散的程度,以及是否会有后续供给冲击、各国如何应对价格波动。

  In 2007-08 governments tended to react in a disorganised and erratic manner, which oftenaccentuated global price rises, as was the case with the imposition of export restraints. Oftenthe measures were not even effective in meeting the objective of stabilising domestic prices,as they often led to panic buying and hoarding.

  2007-08年,各国政府的反应无序混乱,这往往加剧了国际价格上涨,其效果如同实施出口限制措施一样。但这些措施通常会引发抢购和囤积行为,达不到有效稳定国内价格的目标。

  Given all this, governments should be cautious, especially considering that high prices are notnecessarily negative. Attractive producer prices will be needed in the coming months to enticeproducers to embark on a much needed increase of crop cultivation, especially in the southernhemisphere.

  考虑到上述种种,政府应该谨慎行事,尤其是高价并不一定产生负面效果。未来几个月,只有生产者价格足够诱人,才能吸引人们扩大种植——这是目前亟需的——尤其是在南半球。

  Some governments will be called to take a number of steps to alleviate the impact of thesituation on the poorest consumers, for example through the targeted distribution of food atsubsidised prices, increased reliance on non-commodities crops such as roots, tubers, andbeans, and assisting small producers to get better seeds and other basic inputs. Over thelonger term, strategies to increase local production and self-sufficiency should be implemented.

  我们将呼吁一些国家的政府采取多项措施,缓解当前局势对最穷消费者的冲击,例如以补贴价格定向分配粮食,增加对根茎、块茎和豆类等非大宗商品类作物的依赖,以及帮助小规模种植者取得更优质的种子和其他基本的投入品。从长远来看,应当采取增加当地产量、提高自给自足水平的策略。

  Fortunately rice supplies in 2012 are plentiful and rice prices stable, but they could also bedriven higher by increasing prices of other cereals. Rice market stocks were also notproblematic in 2007-08 but prices nevertheless increased dramatically. A lack oftransparency and unco-ordinated unilateral actions by importing and exporting countries andmedia coverage all contributed to creating panic.

  幸运的是,2012年大米供应充足,价格稳定,但米价也可能因为其他谷类价格的上涨而走高。2007-08年,大米市场并不短缺,但价格却出现大幅上涨。透明度不高、进口国与出口国未经协调的单边行动,以及媒体的报道,都产生了催生恐慌的效果。

  With world prices of cereals rising, the competition between the food, feed and fuel sectors forcrops such as maize, sugar and oilseeds is likely to intensify. One way to alleviate some ofthe tension would be to lower or temporarily suspend the mandates on biofuels. At themoment, the renewable energy production in the US is reported to have reached 15.2bn gallonsin 2012, for which it used the equivalent of some 121.9m tonnes or about 40 per cent of USmaize production. An immediate, temporary suspension of that mandate would give somerespite to the market and allow more of the crop to be channelled towards food and feed uses.

  随着全球谷物价格攀升,粮食、饲料和燃料行业对玉米、糖和油籽等作物的争夺可能升级。暂时停止关于生物燃料的法令或者降低其执行力度,是缓解部分紧张的一个办法。目前,2012年美国这一可再生能源的产量据报道已达到152亿加仑,消耗的玉米约为1.219亿吨,占到美国玉米总产量的40%。立即暂停执行上述联邦法令,将为市场提供一定的喘息空间,让更多的玉米流向粮食和饲料用途。

  The US drought leaves global markets highly vulnerable to any further supply side shocks.While the current situation is precarious and could deteriorate further if unfavourableweather conditions persist, it is not a crisis yet. Countries and the UN are better equipped thanin 2007-08 to face high food prices, with the introduction of its Agricultural Market InformationSystem, which and promote co-ordination of policy responses.

  在经受了美国旱情的影响之后,全球市场已无力再承受供应方面任何的进一步冲击。尽管当前形势不确定,而且如果恶劣的天气状况持续的话,形势可能还会恶化,但目前尚未出现危机。与2007-08年相比,目前各国与联合国(UN)更有把握应对高粮价,这是因为联合国启动了能够促进各国政策反应协调水平的农产品市场信息系统(Agricultural Market Information System)。

  However, risks are high and the wrong responses to the current situation could create it. It isvitally important that any unilateral policy reactions from countries, whether importers orexporters, do not further destabilise the situation.

  然而,风险仍然很高,在应对当前局势过程中,如果方法不当也可能酿成危机。至关重要的是,无论是出口国还是进口国,任何单方面的政策反应都应避免加剧局势的不稳定。

  The writer is the director-general of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN

  本文作者为联合国粮农组织(Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN)总干事

  生物英文文章翻译2

  生物技术专利 对人下药

  Business Biotech patents Taking it personally

  商业 生物技术专利 对人下药

  A legal fight over a new generation of medicine

  新一代药品的法律纠纷

  DRUG research is in dark times, as pipelines dry up and development budgets are cut.

  但有一束光带来了一线希望。

  But one shaft of light pierces the gloom.

  随着新药品种开发减少,药品的研发资金缩减,药品研究正处于黑暗时期。

  "Personalised medicine" promises to craft drugs for individuals.

  "个性化药品"承诺为个人定制药品。

  Genetic tests will identify those who will benefit from specific medicines.

  基因测试将识别出那些从特制药品中获益的人。

  Treatment will be more effective; waste will drop.

  从而加强治疗效果;降低浪费水平。

  Personalised medicine has sparked excitement among drugmakers, doctors, hospitals andpatients.

  个性化药品让制药商、医生和病人均欣喜若狂。

  It has also sparked a legal brawl.

  这也引发了法律纠纷。

  On December 7th America's Supreme Court heard arguments in Mayo v Prometheus.

  2011年12月7日美国高等法院听取了梅奥V普罗米修斯的辩论

  The suit, despite a name that suggests an ancient liver sandwich, may be crucial forbiotechnology firms.

  这一诉讼虽然以暗示古代肝三明治的名义进行,但是对于生物公司来说至关重要。

  America is the world's hub for drug research.

  美国是全球药品研究中心。

  By definition, personalised medicine includes the study of genetic mutations and otherpersonal characteristics.

  按定义,定制药品包括对于基因突变的研究和其他个性化特征。

  However, American law bars patents of nature and abstract ideas.

  但是美国的法律禁止给自然和抽象的概念颁发专利。

  The question is which discoveries in personalised medicine may be patented.

  问题在于个性化药品的哪一种发现可能授予专利。

  Prometheus is part of a series of suits over biotech patents.

  普罗米修斯公司是陷入一系列生物技术专利权之争的公司之一。

  Courts have been active because Congress has not.

  因国会无动于衷,法庭便积极地应对。

  A recent patent reform provided little clarity.

  最近的专利改革提供模棱两可的解释。

  Congress merely ordered a study of genetic testing.

  国会仅是指示对基因测试进行研究。

  Judges have been bolder: in July a federal court ruled that genes could be patented.

  法官们是更加的大胆:7月份联邦法庭裁决基因可获得专利。

  On December 7th the suit's losers appealed to the Supreme Court.

  12月7日该案件的败诉方上诉至最高法院。

  But Prometheus may have greater practical import, says Hans Sauer of the BiotechnologyIndustry Organisation (BIO), a trade group.

  生物科技产业组织(BIO)的汉斯.萨奥尔说,但普罗米修斯案可能实际起的作用更大。

  Firms are studying genetic correlations that might predict a drug's efficacy or determine thecause of a disease.

  研究遗传相关的公司可能预计到药品的功效或决定疾病的缘由。

  Prometheus may determine whether methods using such correlations may be patented.

  普罗米修斯案可能裁定使用这种相关方法是否能授予专利。

  The fight has attracted the heavyweights of health care.

  这场官司吸引了卫生保健业重量级人物的眼球。

  On one side is Prometheus Laboratories, a Californian company that has patented a way tooptimise certain drug treatments for individuals.

  一方是因优化某种个性化药物治疗的方法获得专利的加州普罗米修斯公司,

  On the other is the Mayo Clinic, a health and research centre.

  另一方是健康研究中心,梅奥诊所。

  Prometheus's supporters include BIO and several tech firms.

  普罗米修斯公司的支持者包括BIO和几个高科技公司。

  Roche and Abbott, two big drugmakers, gave warning against invalidating patents on diagnostictests.

  两大医药巨头罗氏制药和雅培公司对诊断试验专利无效提出了警告。

  Mayo's allies include the American Medical Association.

  梅奥的联盟包括美国医学协会。

  The patents in question do not concern genetic tests, though the suit's outcome will affectthem.

  对于专利权的争议与基因测试无关,尽管这一案件的审理结果会影响到基因测试。

  They concern tests for the effectiveness of thiopurines, drugs that have long been used totreat gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease.

  他们关心的是巯基嘌呤是否适当的测试。巯基嘌呤是一直用来治疗胃肠道功能失调如克罗恩病的药物。

  Their effect depends on how they are metabolised.

  该药物的是否有效取决于其是如何新陈代谢的。

  Neither thiopurines nor tests for metabolites (substances produced by metabolism) were newwhen Prometheus's patents were filed in 1998.

  在普罗米修斯公司申请专利时不管是巯基嘌呤还是代谢物(由新陈代谢引起的物质)的测试都不是什么新鲜事物。

  But the patents cover the process for determining whether a given dose producesconcentrations of metabolites within a recommended range.

  但是这一专利包括决定是否给定的药物剂量在推荐范围内能产生大量的代谢物过程。

  The dose of thiopurines could be adjusted accordingly.

  巯基嘌呤的剂量可以随之调整过来。

  Prometheus sells a test based on its patents to hospitals and clinics.

  普罗米修斯公司因测试方法申请了专利权而将其卖给医院和诊所。

  In 2004 Mayo developed a competing test, with different recommended levels of metabolites.

  2004年梅奥研制出了有竞争力的测试,对代谢物使用不同的推荐指数。

  Prometheus sued.

  普罗米修斯公司以此状告梅奥诊所。

  Mayo's lawyers say Prometheus has patented a mere observation of the body's naturalworkings.

  梅奥的律师说普罗米修斯公司申请的仅仅是观察人体自然运行的专利。

  Let the claim stand, Mayo argues, and firms will win broad patents over basic biologicalrelationships, stifling innovation.

  梅奥辩道,若让普罗米修斯公司胜诉,公司将超越基本的生物基础而获得广泛意义的专利权从而阻碍创新。

  Prometheus and its allies warn of an alternative apocalypse.

  普罗米修斯公司和其联盟则警告这是另一场大灾难。

  A judgment in Mayo's favour, they contend, will undermine existing patents and shrivelinvestment in personalised medicine.

  偏向于梅奥的支持方争辩道这将破坏现有的专利及导致对个性化药品的投资减少。

  The Supreme Court may not make such a broad judgment.

  最高法院可能不会做出广泛的评判。

  It may instead hand down a narrower ruling that leaves many questions unanswered.

  相反,最高法院有可能将采用较小范围的裁定使得许多问题悬而未决。

  A natural phenomenon may not be patented, but which applications of that phenomenonmight be?

  自由现象有可能不会授予专利,但是自然现象的哪种应用属于专利范围呢?

  When studying genetic correlations, which so-called discoveries are truly novel?

  在研究遗传相关的命题时,哪一种所谓的发现是真的新鲜出炉?

  Eventually personalised medicine may transform patients' care and firms' business models.

  最终个性化药品可能转变病人的护理和企业的经营模式。

  In the near future, the greatest beneficiaries may be patent lawyers.

  在不久的将来,最大的的受益者将是打专利权官司的律师。

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