学习啦【英语文摘】 编辑：韦彦 发布时间：2016-08-27
China is known for many things, but they're perhaps most infamous for their counterfeititems. From clothes to bags to electronics—even whole towns—China has it all. However,they've recently taken the counterfeit business a little further and have entered the disturbingrealm of counterfeit foods.
If there's one food that should be impossible to counterfeit, it would be rice. But the Chinesedid it anyway. China's fake rice is also called plastic rice. It's made from potatoes, sweetpotatoes, and synthetic resin molded into the shape of real rice. The faux rice was commonlysold in Chinese markets, especially in Taiyuan in Shaanxi Province. The rice remained as hard asstone even after it was cooked and did not digest easily. It's also pretty dangerous, sinceconsuming three bowls of it is equal to consuming one bag of vinyl, or one plastic bag.
Aside from producing artificial rice, dishonest Chinese rice sellers also add flavors to ordinaryrice and sell them to the unsuspecting public as "Wuchang rice," which is more costly andgenerally considered one of the better brands of rice sold in Chinese markets. Only 800,000tons of this Wuchang rice are produced annually, while about 10 million tons are sold. In otherwords, more than 9 million tons are fake.
When they're not tampering with rice, dishonest Chinese food sellers are adding chemicals tomeat from rats, minks, and foxes and selling them as mutton. The scheme was so popularand successful that the police arrested more than 900 people and seized about 20,000 tons ofthis meat, all within three months. One of the sellers, a man named Wei, even raked in morethan £1 million from sales alone. He mixed fox, rat, and mink meat with nitrate, gelatin, andcarmine before selling it in markets to unsuspecting buyers.
Chinese police posted a tutorial on Sina Weibo, China's biggest microblogging site, to teachpeople how to differentiate between real and fake mutton. While the difference between themis hard to tell at first glance, the white and red parts of real mutton don't separate aftergetting thawed, torn by hand, or boiled, while the fake meat does.
Tofu, also called soya curd, is a cheese-like food made from a mixture of soy milk and acoagulant. Chinese authorities recently closed down two factories in Wuhan, Hubei Province forselling fake tofu, which was made by mixing various chemicals together. One worker confessedthat they combined soy protein with flour, monosodium glutamate, pigment, and ice to makethe fake tofu before packaging it and selling it under the name of another company that wasproducing real tofu.
Using soy protein to make tofu isn't the most dastardly of deeds, but not all the schemes wereso innocent. Another criminal gang made counterfeit tofu by adding rongalite, an industrialbleaching agent that's been linked to cancer. Supposedly, the chemical made their tofu chewierand brighter. The syndicate was headed by three cousins who sold about 100 tons of thetainted product to the unsuspecting public. When police raided their factory, they foundemployees making the counterfeit food with grimy, unwashed equipment.
7.Formaldehyde And Duck Blood
Duck blood tofu is a delicacy in China. It's made from blood extracted from slaughtered ducks.The blood is then heated until it thickens, allowing it to be cut into squares and sold. That'sstrange already, but it gets worse: Sellers have been known to mix deadly ingredients likeformaldehyde with much cheaper pig or buffalo blood, then sell the concoction as duck blood.Chinese authorities once broke a fake duck-blood ring that was being run by a couple in JiangsuProvince. In this instance, the couple wasn't using pig or buffalo meat. Instead, they usedchicken blood mixed with inedible dye and materials used for printing. One ton of fake duckblood was confiscated. The use of fake duck blood for duck blood tofu is so prevalent in Chinatoday that customers have become pretty good at spotting the difference between the realstuff and the fake stuff.
There are two types of counterfeit honey: the adulterated one, which is a mixture of realhoney and sugar syrup, beetroot syrup, or rice syrup, and the fake honey, which looks morelike real honey than real honey itself. It is made from a mixture of water, sugar, alum, andcoloring. One kilogram (2.2 lb) of fake honey can be produced for just 10 yuan (about $1.60)and sold for as much as 60 yuan ($9.50). About 70 percent of the honey sold in China's JinanProvince is fake and, as usual, Chinese newspapers have offered instructions on how todifferentiate between real and fake honey.
China is the world's biggest producer of honey, which it exports to other countries. A studyrevealed that 10 percent of the honey sold in France was fake and most likely originated ineither East Europe or China. US Customs also busted a fake honey-smuggling ring made up ofUS honey producers. It was discovered that they had been bringing fake honey into the USfrom China via Australia.
5.The Detonation Tenderizer: A Literal Flavor Explosion
Over the years, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has rounded up herds of ideas fortenderizing meat, from the familiar (spiky hammers, enzymatic tenderizers) to the outlandish(using pressure pulses or acoustic waves on submerged meat). But none packed quite thepunch of U.S. Patent No. 3,492,688 A, understatedly titled "Apparatus for tenderizing food."Submitted by Charles S. Godfrey in 1966, the method called for breaking up tough fibers insubprime cuts via high explosives. Bomb and beef would bathe in the same water-filled tank tomaximize the effect
Godfrey thought that the high explosive approach would blow past the shortcomings of otherpressure techniques by creating a much more dramatic and sudden pressure change at theshock front. He might have been onto something, since several other patents have since builton the idea, and at least one company has put it into practice. A pioneer of early nuclearweapons research, Godfrey was also a seasoned veteran of explosive technologies. Inaddition to helping design the diminutive test nukes set off on Eniwetok Atoll in the 1950s, heheld patents in high velocity explosives and shaped explosives and the use of explosives inrock fracturing and excavation.
4.Pica: So Many Words, So Many Food Fixations
We all have our share of unusual cravings, but few are as startling as the wide range ofmaterials consumed by people with the disorder pica, the repeated eating of largely non-nutritive substances like wood, soil or paint chips. The word pica derives from the medievalLatin name for magpie, a bird reputed to eat just about anything
Thanks to Greek and Latin, there's a name for every neurosis, and the many flavors of pica areno different. Xylophagia describes the consumption of paper, pencils, tree bark or other woodyitems. Chewing and eating glass is the habit of those with hyalophagia, and of course there'salso urophagia (urine), coprophagia (feces), geophagia(dirt), autosarcophagy (eating bits ofoneself) and, yes, anthropophagy (human flesh). People with trichophagia chew and/orswallow their own hair, which can result in a dangerous trichobezoar (hairball) that blocks theintestines and requires surgery. In 2007, surgeons removed a 10-pound (4.5-kilogram)trichobezoar that had completely filled the stomach of an 18-year-old woman. Suchcompulsions are frequently associated with a psychological condition or learning disorder. Theprevalence of pica varies from 4 to 26 percent among the institutionalized, and the conditioncan co-occur with Kleine-Levin syndrome, mental retardation and schizophrenia. But it alsocan crop up among otherwise healthy children and in men and women of all ages and cultures,sometimes in response to a dietary deficiency.
3.The Pickle-ice-cream-flavored Mystery of Pregnancy Cravings
The scene depicting a pregnant woman dispatching her mate for pickles and ice cream in thewee small hours is so trite as to qualify as a stereotype, but it's rooted in a familiarphenomenon. Being pregnant can cause unusual cravings, drive a desire to double down onold habits or bring on new and strong aversions. Yet researchers still don't fully understandthe biological and behavioral mechanisms behind these hankerings.
A few patterns have emerged over the years. For example, an expecting mother's cravingstend to fall within culturally available fare; in Tanzania, women crave (in order) meat,mangoes, yogurt, oranges, plantains and soft drinks, whereas American women crave dairyand sweet foods. Connections have also emerged between pregnancy-linked hormone shiftsand an increase in neuropeptide Y, a hypothalamus-born chemical messenger associated withappetite in general. So what inspires specific cravings? It's possible that some yens are meantto counter the odd smells, strange tastes, phantom odors and food aversions that can cropup during pregnancy. But this is only one possibility and requires further study.
2.The Nose Knows Numminess
We all recognize the role of smell in whetting our appetites, conjuring emotions and stirringmemories, yet those little buds on our tongues still get most of the credit for detecting taste.According to researchers in the field of neurogastronomy, however, we have it backward.
Taste buds evolved to detect basic notes of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami (the savoryflavor of mushroom or soy sauce) to help us distinguish energy-rich carbohydrates, findessential salts, test foods for ripeness, detect toxins and identify proteins . But it's thesensation of smell -- specifically, the retronasal smells that waft into the nasal cavity from themouth as we savor food -- that forms the fuller picture of flavor in our brains. Smell is sonuanced that scientists have compared it to sight for the way it forms "pictures" of millions offlavor combinations and determines resemblances among them. Research has further linkedthe sense of smell to psychological well-being and neuroplasticity. Molecular gastronomists,who try to understand the physics and chemistry of food for artistic and culinary effects,make careful use of odorants and aromatics in their creations, but the interactions betweensaliva and food make isolating the key smell-ecular elements difficult. Oh, well. There's alwaysmarketing.
1.A Food by Any Other Name
Foods are known by many names. Some refer to subtle distinctions, as coriander and cilantrorefer to the seeds and the vegetative pieces, respectively, of the Coriandrum sativum plant.Others might reveal cases of mistaken identity, as when many Americans each Thanksgivingmislabel sweet potatoes as yams, when in fact they are two separate plants.
Then there are those foods that assume new monikers for marketing purposes. Canola (aportmanteau of "Canada " and "ola" for oil) is actually a specially bred rapeseed oil rebranded toavoid negative associations with the word "rape" (rape, or Brassica napus, is a plant in themustard family) and possibly to distance it from earlier versions of rapeseed oil, which weretoxic to humans . Kiwifruit is not from New Zealand at all -- it's a Chinese gooseberryrebranded by exporters to avoid negative associations in Cold War American markets. It's alsonot a gooseberry, so it's just as well that they changed its label.The Patagonian toothfish(Dissostichus eleginoides) was renamed "Chilean sea bass" to better whet customer appetitesand was so successful that it now faces overfishing, despite not being a sea bass at all. Forsimilar reasons, restaurant customers now know the "slimehead" (Hoplostethus atlanticus) asthe far more appealing "orange roughy". A rose is a rose is a rose, but cheap hake sells betteras scarlet snapper.
出于营销目的，还有一些食物采用了新名字。如芥花油(是从 “Canada Oil Low Acid” 四个字的首字母组合而成，意为 “低酸加拿大油”)实际上是一种经特殊培养的菜籽油，但或许是为了避免”rape”(芸苔或甘蓝型油菜，是一种十字花科植物)这个词汇带来消极影响，也或是为了区分对人体有毒害作用的早期菜籽油，它就被重新命名了。猕猴桃并不是来自新西兰——它其实是中国鹅莓，是出口商为避免冷战期间美国市场带来的消极影响而重新起的名字。它也不是醋栗，所以只是他们换了名称而已。巴塔哥尼亚齿鱼(小鳞犬牙南极鱼)被重命名为智利海鲈鱼是为了更好地刺激消费者的购买欲，而且获得了巨大的成功。尽管它不是鲈鱼，但它现在也面临过度捕捞的局面。基于类似的原因，餐厅顾客现在都知道听起来更有吸引力的“罗非鱼”其实就是“燧鲷”(大西洋胸棘鲷)。一朵玫瑰就像一朵玫瑰是一朵玫瑰一样，但廉价的鳕鱼就是要比大红鲷鱼卖得好。