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食品类英语文章

学习啦【英语文摘】 编辑:韦彦 发布时间:2016-08-27

  近年来,食品安全问题引起了世界范围内的普遍关注,成为各国政府和消费者谈论的焦点。下面是学习啦小编带来的食品类英语文章,欢迎阅读!

  食品类英语文章1

  让你我心痛的中国十大食品造假事件(上)

  China is known for many things, but they're perhaps most infamous for their counterfeititems. From clothes to bags to electronics—even whole towns—China has it all. However,they've recently taken the counterfeit business a little further and have entered the disturbingrealm of counterfeit foods.

  曾经辉煌灿烂的历史文化让中国声名远扬,但现在一波接一波的造假事件又让中国的形象有些狼狈。从衣服到包包再到电子工业,甚至一整座城市,聪明的中国人都可以仿制得真假难辨。最近一些造假分子又把贪婪的触角伸向食品行业。

  10.Plastic Rice

  10.塑料大米

  If there's one food that should be impossible to counterfeit, it would be rice. But the Chinesedid it anyway. China's fake rice is also called plastic rice. It's made from potatoes, sweetpotatoes, and synthetic resin molded into the shape of real rice. The faux rice was commonlysold in Chinese markets, especially in Taiyuan in Shaanxi Province. The rice remained as hard asstone even after it was cooked and did not digest easily. It's also pretty dangerous, sinceconsuming three bowls of it is equal to consuming one bag of vinyl, or one plastic bag.

  几乎所有人都不相信大米也能造假,但聪明的中国人最爱挑战,想出用土豆、甘薯和松香混合,制作出的塑料大米晶莹剔透,与真大米几乎无异。这种人造大米即使用开水煮也十分坚硬,吃下肚很难消化,可怕的是吃三碗人造大米就相当于吞下一只塑料袋,对人体的危害可想而知。

  Aside from producing artificial rice, dishonest Chinese rice sellers also add flavors to ordinaryrice and sell them to the unsuspecting public as "Wuchang rice," which is more costly andgenerally considered one of the better brands of rice sold in Chinese markets. Only 800,000tons of this Wuchang rice are produced annually, while about 10 million tons are sold. In otherwords, more than 9 million tons are fake.

  除了这种做法,利益熏心的稻米供应商还会在大米里添加香味剂,然后贴上"五常大米"的标签摆放在超市的货架上,经常逛超市的主妇们一定了解"五常大米"产于黑龙江五常县,那里长出的大米色泽青白剔透,口感绵软微甜,市场上价格要比其他品牌的大米高出许多,供应商们看到有利可图,纷纷开始高仿"五常大米"。人们吃着香甜扑鼻的米饭浑然不知化学药品也在跟着进入体内。数据显示,五常县每年只出产八十万吨的优质大米,市面上这种大米的销售量却有一千万吨。换句话说,你懂的。

  9.Rat Mutton

  9.挂羊头卖鼠肉

  When they're not tampering with rice, dishonest Chinese food sellers are adding chemicals tomeat from rats, minks, and foxes and selling them as mutton. The scheme was so popularand successful that the police arrested more than 900 people and seized about 20,000 tons ofthis meat, all within three months. One of the sellers, a man named Wei, even raked in morethan £1 million from sales alone. He mixed fox, rat, and mink meat with nitrate, gelatin, andcarmine before selling it in markets to unsuspecting buyers.

  在高仿大米商业链条形成之前,中国有些黑心的食品供应商们最热衷于在肉制品上做手脚。为了提高利润,他们在狐狸肉,貂肉甚至老鼠肉上添加化学药剂,经过加工当作羊肉出售。假羊肉食用起来口感和真羊肉差别不大,因此并未引起人们的怀疑,加之利润可观,这些以次充好的肉制品大受工厂、作坊和零售商的青睐。但时间不长,有关部门发现了这个问题,开始打击逮捕黑作坊、黑心肉贩,短短三个月就查获将近两万吨假羊肉。有一个供应商被抓捕后坦白,他从一些暗渠收购老鼠肉,狐狸肉和貂肉,然后用硝酸盐、明胶、洋红加工成假羊肉,没多久净赚将近一千万人民币,简直是暴利!

  Chinese police posted a tutorial on Sina Weibo, China's biggest microblogging site, to teachpeople how to differentiate between real and fake mutton. While the difference between themis hard to tell at first glance, the white and red parts of real mutton don't separate aftergetting thawed, torn by hand, or boiled, while the fake meat does.

  该如何鉴别真假羊肉呢?媒体们开始在新浪微博上支招了。真羊肉和假羊肉虽然乍一看没有区别,但用水煮会发现真羊肉的脂肪和精肉不会分开,而假羊肉的着色剂会褪去,变成色泽暗淡的劣质肉,可别再误买假羊肉啦。

  8.Chemical Tofu

  8.化工豆腐

  Tofu, also called soya curd, is a cheese-like food made from a mixture of soy milk and acoagulant. Chinese authorities recently closed down two factories in Wuhan, Hubei Province forselling fake tofu, which was made by mixing various chemicals together. One worker confessedthat they combined soy protein with flour, monosodium glutamate, pigment, and ice to makethe fake tofu before packaging it and selling it under the name of another company that wasproducing real tofu.

  豆腐,又称水豆腐,是我国素食菜肴的主要原料,主要的生产过程一是制浆,即将大豆制成豆浆;二是凝固成形,即豆浆在热与凝固剂的共同作用下凝固成含有大量水分的凝胶体,即豆腐。最近,有关部门查封了湖北武汉两个制作假豆腐的食品作坊。里面参与制作的一个工人说,这种豆腐就是将面粉、味精、冰块、大豆蛋白以及各种色素一起混合做成成本更低的假豆腐,做好后再用另一家豆腐生产厂的商标进行包装,供应给市场上的零售商。

  Using soy protein to make tofu isn't the most dastardly of deeds, but not all the schemes wereso innocent. Another criminal gang made counterfeit tofu by adding rongalite, an industrialbleaching agent that's been linked to cancer. Supposedly, the chemical made their tofu chewierand brighter. The syndicate was headed by three cousins who sold about 100 tons of thetainted product to the unsuspecting public. When police raided their factory, they foundemployees making the counterfeit food with grimy, unwashed equipment.

  用大豆蛋白制作豆腐应该算不上最黑心的手段,至少这些合成原料平时人们也经常食用,对身体危害不大。但接下来要说的化工豆腐估计要让大家咬牙切齿了。有一个地下作坊为了让豆腐更加洁白光亮有嚼劲,竟然添加雕白粉,小编告诉大家,这可是一种致癌几率相当高的工业漂白剂。警察突击检查他们的作坊时,那里的工人们仍在忙碌地"合成"豆腐,使用的设备满是灰尘,从未消过毒。

  7.Formaldehyde And Duck Blood

  7.甲醛鸭血

  Duck blood tofu is a delicacy in China. It's made from blood extracted from slaughtered ducks.The blood is then heated until it thickens, allowing it to be cut into squares and sold. That'sstrange already, but it gets worse: Sellers have been known to mix deadly ingredients likeformaldehyde with much cheaper pig or buffalo blood, then sell the concoction as duck blood.Chinese authorities once broke a fake duck-blood ring that was being run by a couple in JiangsuProvince. In this instance, the couple wasn't using pig or buffalo meat. Instead, they usedchicken blood mixed with inedible dye and materials used for printing. One ton of fake duckblood was confiscated. The use of fake duck blood for duck blood tofu is so prevalent in Chinatoday that customers have become pretty good at spotting the difference between the realstuff and the fake stuff.

  鸭血豆腐在中国是家喻户晓的一道美味,顾名思义,鸭血豆腐的一大原料就是鸭血。将新鲜的鸭血加热,凝固成块状后就是成品了。传统做法是这样子,可不要忘了咱们这篇文章是要带大家看真相。也许你不会相信市场上很多鸭血其实是猪血和牛血,更不会相信这些猪血牛血里还有甲醛!但这就是真相。公安部门曾在江苏查封一对夫妻经营的甲醛鸭血作坊,没收了整整一吨假鸭血。虽然这对夫妇没有用猪血或者牛血充当鸭血,但可恶的是将大量对人体有害的化工染料掺进鸭血中。好在现在很多人已经知道甲醛鸭血,在市场上购买鸭血时会更加留意。

  6.Adulterated Honey

  6.掺假蜂蜜

  There are two types of counterfeit honey: the adulterated one, which is a mixture of realhoney and sugar syrup, beetroot syrup, or rice syrup, and the fake honey, which looks morelike real honey than real honey itself. It is made from a mixture of water, sugar, alum, andcoloring. One kilogram (2.2 lb) of fake honey can be produced for just 10 yuan (about $1.60)and sold for as much as 60 yuan ($9.50). About 70 percent of the honey sold in China's JinanProvince is fake and, as usual, Chinese newspapers have offered instructions on how todifferentiate between real and fake honey.

  假冒伪劣的蜂蜜有两种:一种是掺假蜂蜜,这种蜂蜜在真蜂蜜当中掺杂了甜菜糖浆或者大米糖浆,另外还有水、糖、明矾合成的假蜂蜜。1公斤假蜂蜜的生产成本是10块钱而成品售价是60块钱,山东蜂蜜销售市场中大约有70%都是假冒伪劣产品。和往常报道食品问题一样,国内主流媒体又把焦点放在教大家如何辨别真假蜂蜜上。

  China is the world's biggest producer of honey, which it exports to other countries. A studyrevealed that 10 percent of the honey sold in France was fake and most likely originated ineither East Europe or China. US Customs also busted a fake honey-smuggling ring made up ofUS honey producers. It was discovered that they had been bringing fake honey into the USfrom China via Australia.

  中国是世界最大的蜂蜜制造出口国。有项报告显示,在法国出售的蜂蜜中有10%是假蜂蜜,这些假蜂蜜的原产地主要是西欧和中国。美国警方也在本土抓获了几个美国蜂蜜走私团伙。调查发现他们的假蜂蜜经由澳大利亚引进美国,无一例外,这些蜂蜜的原产地都是中国。

  食品类英语文章2

  关于食物的十大奇闻异事(下)

  5.The Detonation Tenderizer: A Literal Flavor Explosion

  5.利用爆炸冲击改变肉质

  Over the years, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has rounded up herds of ideas fortenderizing meat, from the familiar (spiky hammers, enzymatic tenderizers) to the outlandish(using pressure pulses or acoustic waves on submerged meat). But none packed quite thepunch of U.S. Patent No. 3,492,688 A, understatedly titled "Apparatus for tenderizing food."Submitted by Charles S. Godfrey in 1966, the method called for breaking up tough fibers insubprime cuts via high explosives. Bomb and beef would bathe in the same water-filled tank tomaximize the effect

  多年来,美国专利及商标局搜集了各种使肉质鲜嫩的技术,从传统手艺(敲击,酶嫩化剂)到创新技术(使用压力脉冲或声波让肉均匀变化)应有尽有。但却没有技术能比得上序号为3492688 A的美国专利,它被低调地命名为“柔化食品设备”。1966年,查尔斯·戈弗雷提出申请这项专利,宣传通过烈性炸药打破动物的硬质纤维肉,并把炸药和牛肉放在同一个水罐中来达到最佳效果。

  Godfrey thought that the high explosive approach would blow past the shortcomings of otherpressure techniques by creating a much more dramatic and sudden pressure change at theshock front. He might have been onto something, since several other patents have since builton the idea, and at least one company has put it into practice. A pioneer of early nuclearweapons research, Godfrey was also a seasoned veteran of explosive technologies. Inaddition to helping design the diminutive test nukes set off on Eniwetok Atoll in the 1950s, heheld patents in high velocity explosives and shaped explosives and the use of explosives inrock fracturing and excavation.

  戈佛雷认为,高爆方法能在激振前沿创造出更显著的突变,从而弥补过去其他压力技术的缺点。也许他这项发明真的很厉害,因为他的设计理念已经在其他几项专利中得到体现,而且至少有一家公司已经把这项技术付诸实践。作为早期核武器研究的先驱,戈佛雷还是一名经验丰富的爆破技术老兵。20世纪50年代,他在埃尼威托克的环礁协助设计微型核武器爆破试验,此外他还持有高速炸药、变形炸药、爆破和开挖岩石炸药的专利。

  4.Pica: So Many Words, So Many Food Fixations

  4.异食癖:吃任何东西,什么都可以吃

  We all have our share of unusual cravings, but few are as startling as the wide range ofmaterials consumed by people with the disorder pica, the repeated eating of largely non-nutritive substances like wood, soil or paint chips. The word pica derives from the medievalLatin name for magpie, a bird reputed to eat just about anything

  任何人都可能有一些奇特的欲望,但是却很少有像那些异食癖患者一样有着令人咋舌的欲望,他们吃各种东西,比如木头、泥土或者油漆木片这种没有营养的物质。异食癖这个单词来源于中世纪的拉丁语,意思是喜鹊,因为喜鹊普遍被认为是吃任何东西的鸟类。

  Thanks to Greek and Latin, there's a name for every neurosis, and the many flavors of pica areno different. Xylophagia describes the consumption of paper, pencils, tree bark or other woodyitems. Chewing and eating glass is the habit of those with hyalophagia, and of course there'salso urophagia (urine), coprophagia (feces), geophagia(dirt), autosarcophagy (eating bits ofoneself) and, yes, anthropophagy (human flesh). People with trichophagia chew and/orswallow their own hair, which can result in a dangerous trichobezoar (hairball) that blocks theintestines and requires surgery. In 2007, surgeons removed a 10-pound (4.5-kilogram)trichobezoar that had completely filled the stomach of an 18-year-old woman. Suchcompulsions are frequently associated with a psychological condition or learning disorder. Theprevalence of pica varies from 4 to 26 percent among the institutionalized, and the conditioncan co-occur with Kleine-Levin syndrome, mental retardation and schizophrenia. But it alsocan crop up among otherwise healthy children and in men and women of all ages and cultures,sometimes in response to a dietary deficiency.

  借助拉丁语和希腊语,使得每一种神经病症都有学名,不过异食癖也有许多不同的类型。食木癖患者是来形容那些喜欢吃纸,铅笔,树皮或者是其他木质品的人,而习惯吃玻璃的人则被称为食玻璃癖患者,此外还有喝尿癖、食粪癖、食土癖,食己癖,自然也有食人癖(喜欢吃人肉)患者。而有食毛癖的人则喜欢咀嚼或者吞咽自己的毛发,这样会导致肠子被危险的毛团堵塞,需要动手术来疏通。2007年,曾有一个18岁的食毛癖女性,通过手术移除了塞满其腹腔的近10英镑重(4.5千克)的毛发团。不过这些强迫症主要和心理状况以及学习障碍有关。在那些缺乏自理能力的人身上,这种异食癖的发病率大约在4%到26%之间,这种病症还可能引起克莱恩莱文综合征、智力缺陷以及精神分裂症等并发症。但是健康的孩子,不同文化背景不同年龄层次的成人也会突发异食癖,有时只是因为他们的饮食不均衡导致缺乏营养物质。

  3.The Pickle-ice-cream-flavored Mystery of Pregnancy Cravings

  3.咸菜冰激凌味儿的料理——揭秘孕妇的奇葩口味

  The scene depicting a pregnant woman dispatching her mate for pickles and ice cream in thewee small hours is so trite as to qualify as a stereotype, but it's rooted in a familiarphenomenon. Being pregnant can cause unusual cravings, drive a desire to double down onold habits or bring on new and strong aversions. Yet researchers still don't fully understandthe biological and behavioral mechanisms behind these hankerings.

  在生活中,我们总是能看到这样的情景——一个孕妇催着丈夫去买咸菜和冰激凌,让他快去快回。这个情景着实老套,也再平常不过。怀孕能让你的口味变得奇特,原来的饮食习惯会加倍凸显,还可能发生从来没有过的激烈反应。。然而,研究者们仍然不了解这些奇特口味背后的生物学和行为学原理。

  A few patterns have emerged over the years. For example, an expecting mother's cravingstend to fall within culturally available fare; in Tanzania, women crave (in order) meat,mangoes, yogurt, oranges, plantains and soft drinks, whereas American women crave dairyand sweet foods. Connections have also emerged between pregnancy-linked hormone shiftsand an increase in neuropeptide Y, a hypothalamus-born chemical messenger associated withappetite in general. So what inspires specific cravings? It's possible that some yens are meantto counter the odd smells, strange tastes, phantom odors and food aversions that can cropup during pregnancy. But this is only one possibility and requires further study.

  近年来出现了很多不同的孕妇饮食偏好模式。例如,在一些饮食文化中,准妈妈们的口味会变淡;在坦桑尼亚,孕妇变得爱吃肉、芒果、酸奶酪、橙子、大蕉等食物以及爱喝软饮料;而在美国,孕妇的日常饮食则偏重奶制品和甜品。研究者还发现,孕激素的变化能导致神经肽Y增多,而神经肽Y是下丘脑产生的一种与食欲有关的信号激素。那么到底是什么导致了这种奇特的口味呢?可能是为了抑制怀孕期间闻到的、吃到的或只是假想的怪味,以及突发的妊娠反应。但是这只是一种可能性,具体情况如何,还需要进一步探究。

  2.The Nose Knows Numminess

  2.鼻子熟识美味

  We all recognize the role of smell in whetting our appetites, conjuring emotions and stirringmemories, yet those little buds on our tongues still get most of the credit for detecting taste.According to researchers in the field of neurogastronomy, however, we have it backward.

  我们都知道嗅觉能引起我们的食欲、激发我们的情绪、勾起我们的回忆,但我们不知道的是察辨味道主要还是归功于我们舌尖上小小的味蕾。在神经美食学领域的研究者看来,我们早已落后。

  Taste buds evolved to detect basic notes of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami (the savoryflavor of mushroom or soy sauce) to help us distinguish energy-rich carbohydrates, findessential salts, test foods for ripeness, detect toxins and identify proteins . But it's thesensation of smell -- specifically, the retronasal smells that waft into the nasal cavity from themouth as we savor food -- that forms the fuller picture of flavor in our brains. Smell is sonuanced that scientists have compared it to sight for the way it forms "pictures" of millions offlavor combinations and determines resemblances among them. Research has further linkedthe sense of smell to psychological well-being and neuroplasticity. Molecular gastronomists,who try to understand the physics and chemistry of food for artistic and culinary effects,make careful use of odorants and aromatics in their creations, but the interactions betweensaliva and food make isolating the key smell-ecular elements difficult. Oh, well. There's alwaysmarketing.

  味蕾进化是为了分辨基本的甜、咸、酸、苦及鲜(蘑菇或酱油的咸味香精),以此来帮助我们区分高热量的碳水化合物、发现人体所需盐分、检验食物是否成熟、探测毒素以及识别蛋白质。但嗅觉,尤其是余味,在我们品尝食物时从嘴里飘进鼻腔,如此便在我们的大脑中形成一幅更完整的图片。嗅觉是如此微妙,科学家们将它与视觉做对比,来找出数百万种味道混合成“图片”的形成方式以及其相似性的判定方式。研究进一步认为嗅觉与心理健康和神经可塑性相关联。而所谓的分子美食家,就是那些为了艺术效果和食用效果去研究食物的物理、化学特性并在食物的再创造过程中悉心运用气味和芳香剂的人。但是唾液和食物之间的相互作用加大了隔离关键性“味道因子”的难度。噢!对了,市场总是以此为促销噱头。

  1.A Food by Any Other Name

  1.食物的其他名字

  Foods are known by many names. Some refer to subtle distinctions, as coriander and cilantrorefer to the seeds and the vegetative pieces, respectively, of the Coriandrum sativum plant.Others might reveal cases of mistaken identity, as when many Americans each Thanksgivingmislabel sweet potatoes as yams, when in fact they are two separate plants.

  食物通常有许多名字。有些是有着细微差别的,比如胡荽叶和芫荽叶分别指芫荽植物的种子和叶子。但也有一些认错食物名称的事例,比如每到感恩节,大多数美国人会错把番薯称为薯蓣,其实它们是两种截然不同的植物。

  Then there are those foods that assume new monikers for marketing purposes. Canola (aportmanteau of "Canada " and "ola" for oil) is actually a specially bred rapeseed oil rebranded toavoid negative associations with the word "rape" (rape, or Brassica napus, is a plant in themustard family) and possibly to distance it from earlier versions of rapeseed oil, which weretoxic to humans . Kiwifruit is not from New Zealand at all -- it's a Chinese gooseberryrebranded by exporters to avoid negative associations in Cold War American markets. It's alsonot a gooseberry, so it's just as well that they changed its label.The Patagonian toothfish(Dissostichus eleginoides) was renamed "Chilean sea bass" to better whet customer appetitesand was so successful that it now faces overfishing, despite not being a sea bass at all. Forsimilar reasons, restaurant customers now know the "slimehead" (Hoplostethus atlanticus) asthe far more appealing "orange roughy". A rose is a rose is a rose, but cheap hake sells betteras scarlet snapper.

  出于营销目的,还有一些食物采用了新名字。如芥花油(是从 “Canada Oil Low Acid” 四个字的首字母组合而成,意为 “低酸加拿大油”)实际上是一种经特殊培养的菜籽油,但或许是为了避免”rape”(芸苔或甘蓝型油菜,是一种十字花科植物)这个词汇带来消极影响,也或是为了区分对人体有毒害作用的早期菜籽油,它就被重新命名了。猕猴桃并不是来自新西兰——它其实是中国鹅莓,是出口商为避免冷战期间美国市场带来的消极影响而重新起的名字。它也不是醋栗,所以只是他们换了名称而已。巴塔哥尼亚齿鱼(小鳞犬牙南极鱼)被重命名为智利海鲈鱼是为了更好地刺激消费者的购买欲,而且获得了巨大的成功。尽管它不是鲈鱼,但它现在也面临过度捕捞的局面。基于类似的原因,餐厅顾客现在都知道听起来更有吸引力的“罗非鱼”其实就是“燧鲷”(大西洋胸棘鲷)。一朵玫瑰就像一朵玫瑰是一朵玫瑰一样,但廉价的鳕鱼就是要比大红鲷鱼卖得好。

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