学习啦【英语文摘】 编辑：韦彦 发布时间：2016-08-27
Many people assume that women are more greatly affected by alcohol than men becausethey generally weigh less and have lower rates of drinking. While this is true, researchers havefound other ways in which women are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol.
One important finding is that the enzyme responsible for breaking down alcohol is less active in women. This means that more alcohol winds up in a woman's bloodstream. Additionally, a woman's higher ratio of body fat makes alcohol spread through her body more slowly.
This greater sensitivity to alcohol leaves women more prone to alcohol-related illnesses like cirrhosis of the liver and alcohol-induced brain damage. Other worrisome results show a correlation between heavy drinking among women and their rate of sexual victimization and domestic5 violence. While there have always been reasons for women to be careful when drinking alcohol, this new research gives them even more cause to be aware and play it safe.
Have you ever thought about why people are ticklish? According to scientists, ticklishness is a defense mechanism humans developed against bugs, spiders, and other critters that may be touching our skin. Feeling ticklish is our built-in response to predators or threats, and combines the sensations of touch and pain.
The part of the brain that is associated with tickling is the cerebellum. It monitors our movements, but ignores movements not perceived as a threat. For example, we do not notice our vocal chords moving when we speak, but we may jump if someone touches us on the shoulder. This selective perception is probably the reason why we cannot tickle ourselves.
Fermented beverages made from various types of grain appeared independently in different locations all over the ancient world from Africa to China. The word beer itself comes from a Latin verb meaning "to drink", and the ancient Romans were certainly no strangers to the brew. However, because they considered it the drink of barbarians , the Romans generally preferred wine.
In ancient times, people who made beer lacked the means to preserve and filter it properly, so the drink was cloudy and turned bad quickly. It was medieval European monks who introduced scientific brewing techniques in an effort to produce a nutritious beverage to supplement their meager diets.
The monks were not restricted to only brewing the beer, and consumption of it within the monasteries reached astonishing levels. One report from Belgium said that monks were drinking as much as five liters a day. Monastery breweries in Europe also ran their own pubs and enjoyed a tax-free status that came to be resented by the growing merchant class.