学习啦【英语文摘】 编辑：韦彦 发布时间：2016-08-29
Amazon.com recent announcement that sales of e-books at the online megastore had overtaken sales of hardcover books came as no surprise. It had to happen sometime. But the news did conjure quite an interesting mental image: libraries that from now on will look smaller and less crowded. The habits of readers may not change. But their enviroments will. Theoretically, your space will be more spare, more serenely uncluttered. That's the theory, at least. My experience is that stuff expands to fill the space available. But you can dream.
With books, the absence of packaging does nothing to contents. I can buy a hardover copy of Moby Dick or download it into an e-reader, and Melville is still Melville. But I grew up loving Rockwell Kent's illustrations of that novel, and later Barry Moser's. It's hard to think of the book without them. I can do that, certainly, but some little is lost.
I come from a generation for whom the books and records on the shelf signaled, in some way, who you were. If you visited a friend, you took the first chance you had to surrepititiously scan that friend's Kindle, but is that the same? And try that kind of snooping on a bus or in a coffee shop and you'll probably get arrested.
The stuff of our lives is a comfort. We look up at the shelves and we see old friends.(Yes, there aare books on my shelves that aren't my friends, that I haven't finished or even started, but someday I will, I promise-my home library is a physical manifestation of ambivalence.) There is a comfort in the continuity of seeing the same books year after year. I guess there might be some of the same pleasure in scrolling through a digital librar or music playlist, but somehow I think something will be lost.
The Secret of Salary
We all know employees talk, and things can never remain totally confidential, he says. But an outright exchange of salary details probably isn't the best idea.
Keep It Secret, Keep It Safe
When companies have different employees on the same job and one of them is paid differently, many unfairness issues surface. "It can happen in any 'open shop' that differentiates pay for any reason (seniority, performance, etc.)," says Dauphinais. You could run the risk of alienating valued colleagues if they learn you earn more for what they perceive to be the same job.
Democracy Doesn't Always Work at Work
There are organizations that openly share compensation information around the office. However, warns Dauphinais, "Unless all similar jobs pay the same rate, I would advise that open salary concepts don't work well."
The confidential nature of your salary, in fact, can be a greater benefit to you. "It creats an oppportunity for a manager to have a confidential discussion with employees as to why they are being paid what they are - and how they can work toward making more money," he says. "Each employee can then move forward with confidence that they have 'bonded' with their supervisor on their individual issues - good and bad - without involving others in the process."
Don't Let Under-Compensation Undermine You
If you learn that someone who holds a similar position earns a bigger paycheck, don't panic. First, do some due diligence to determine if you are being underpaid in general. Use the internet salary calculator, and also reach out to your out-of-office network to find out how people at other companies are being compensated.
Next, says Dauphinais, "I would go to my boss and ask the reasons why." Open a rational dialogue to understand what skills or experience you'll need to improve your performance and earn more recognition and financial rewards.
Information Superhighway - The World in a Minute
Some historians say that the most important contribution of Dwight Eisenhower's presidency(总统任期) in the 1950s was the U.S. interstate highway system. It was a massive project, easily surpassing the scale of such previous human endeavors as the Panama Canal. Eisenhower's interstate highways bound the nation together in new ways and facilitated major economic growth by making commerce less expensive. Today, an information superhighway has been built - an electronic network that connects libraries, corporations, government agencies and individuals. This electronic superhighway is called the Internet, and it is the backbone(主干) of the World Wide Web.
The Internet had its origins in a 1969 U.S. Defense Department computer network alled ARPAnet, which stood for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. The Pentagon built the network for military contractors and universities doing military research to exchange information. In 1983 the National Science Foundation (NSF), whose mission is to promote science, took over.
This new NSF network attracted more and more institutional users, many of which had their own internal networks. For example, most universities that joined the NSF network had intracampus computer networks. The NSF network then bacame a connector for thousands of other networks. As a backbone system that interconnects networks, internet was a name that fit.
So we can see that the Internet is the wired infrastructure(基础设施) on which web messages move. It began as a military communication system, which expand into a government-funded civilian research network.
Today, the Internet is a user-financed system tying institutions of many sorts together into an "information superhighway".