学习啦【英语文摘】 编辑：韦彦 发布时间：2016-08-29
In a world full of mirrors, what I'm about to tell you may be a surprise. But many overweight people do not know they're obese. They underestimate their weight, according to a study in the journal Body Image.
Researchers documented the height, weight and body mass index of more than 3,500 Mexican undergraduate students. Then they questioned the students about their weights. The reported poundage differed significantly from reality, especially among males.
More than 33 percent of the males were overweight or obese but less than 17 percent characterized themselves as being in either category. And though more than 27 percent of the women were overweight or obese, only 21 percent believed they were. The heavier the student the more likely they were to underestimate their weight.
The study took place in Mexico because that country has the highest rates of obesity and diabetes in the world. But undergrads in the U.S. are even more likely to underestimate their weight, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The researchers note that recognizing a weight problem early on is crucial for weight control as people age. Or you can wind up buying a bigger belt every year.
Senior citizens, don't believe the hype. Because a new study finds that older folks who accept that seniors' memories get worse do worse on memory tests. The finding was published in the journal Experimental Aging Research.
Scientists interested in the effects of stereotype on memory enlisted 103 seniors between 60-and 82-years-old to take a memory test. Before the test, some subjects were told that the test checked the effects of age on memory. Researchers call this a threat—it reminds participants of the stereotype. That group was also asked to write down their age after reading the instructions, again homing in on the stereotype. The other group was told that the test controlled for biases. This could make them feel more secure. Researchers also gave participants a stigma consciousness questionnaire to test how strongly they bought into negative stereotypes.
The results: participants who got reminded of their age and the old age, poor memory stereotype did significantly worse. Those who say they feel stigmatized also performed more poorly. So your memory may function better just by believing that it will. In which case, you really will eventually figure out where you left your car keys.
When you're done listening to this podcast, grab whatever product you use to clean. Maybe it'ssomething that smells really citrusy. Do a bit of cleaning. Then take a few deep breaths. Believeit or not the odds are now higher that you'll make decisions that are both more fair and moregenerous than you would have without smelling the cleanser. That's according to researchpublished in the journal Psychological Science.
Study subjects were tested in two different rooms. One room had recently been spritzed withcitrus-scented glass cleaner. The first test evaluated fairness—how much real money theparticipants were willing to share with an anonymous partner in another room. Participants inthe clean-smelling room offered twice as much cash.
In the second test, subjects gauged how interested they were in volunteering for Habitat forHumanity and in donating money. Those in the clean-smelling room said they were significantlymore interested in volunteering and almost three times more likely to donate money.
Researchers claim that clean smells thus promote moral behavior. And that schools,workplaces and stores could take advantage of the finding. So if you're being virtuous, maybeyou're following the rules because you're following your nose.