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英语文章的开头和结尾

学习啦【英语文摘】 编辑:韦彦 发布时间:2016-08-30

  语言是人们用来交流的工具,作文则是对学生是否很好地掌握了这一交流工具而作的一项重要测试。下面是学习啦小编带来的英语文章的开头和结尾,欢迎阅读!

  语文章的开头和结尾1

  Chapter One 文章开头句型

  1-1 对立法 : 先引出其他人的不同看法,然后提出自己的看法或者偏向于某一看法,

  适用于有争议性的主题.

  例如(e.g)

  [1]. When asked about....., the vast/overwhelming majority of people say that ....... But I think/view a bit differently.

  [2]. When it comes to .... , some people bielive that ....... Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true . There is probably some truth in both arguements/statements , but (I tend to the profer/latter ...)

  [3]. Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/held/acknowledged that .... They claim/ believe/argue that ... But I wonder/doubt whether.....

  1-2 现象法 引出要剖析的现象或者问题, 然后评论 .

  e.g

  [1]. Recently the rise in problem of/(phenomenon of) ... has cause/aroused public/popular/wide/ worldwide concern.

  [2]. Recently the issue of the problem of/the phenomenon of ...has been brought into focus. ( has been brouth to public attention)

  [3].Inflation/Corruption/Social inequality ... is yet another of the new and bitter truth we have to learn to face now/constantly.

  ----- To be continued !!

  1-3 观点法 ----开门见山,直接了当地提出自己对要讨论的问题的看法.

  e.g:

  [1]. Never history has the change of .. been as evident as ... Nowhere in the world/China has the issue/idea of .. benn more visible/popular than...

  [2]. Now people in growing/significant numbers are beginnig/coming to realize/accept/(be aware) that...

  [3]. Now there is a growing awareness/recognation ot the necessity to......Now people become increasingly aware/conscious of the importance of ......

  [4]. Perhaps it is time to have a fresh look at the attitude/idea that.......

  1-4 引用法 ----- 先引出名人名言或者有代表性的看法, 来引出文章要展开论述的观点!

  e.g:

  [1]. "Knowledge is power." such is the remark made by Bacon.This remark has been shared by more and more people .

  "Education is not complete with gradulation." Such is the opnion of a great American philosopher. Now more and more people share his opnion.

  [2]."........." How often we hear such statements/words like thoses /this .

  In our own days we are used to hearing such traditional complains as this "......".

  1-5 比较法 ------ 通过对过去,现在 两种不同的倾向,观点的比较 , 引出文章要讨论的观点.

  e.g:

  [1]. For years, ...had been viewed as ... But people are taking a fresh look now. With the growing ... , people ....... .

  [2]. People used to think that ... (In the past, ....) But people now share this new.

  1-6 故事法 ---- 先讲一个较短的故事来引发读者的兴趣, 引出文章的主题.

  e.g:

  [1]. Once in (a newspaper) , I read of/learnt .... The phenemenon of ... has aroused public concern.

  [2]. I have a friend who ... Should he .... ? Such a dilemma we are often confront with in our daily life.

  [3]. Once upon a time , there lived a man who ... This story may be (unbelievable) , but it still has a realistic significance now.

  1-8 问题法 ----- 先用讨论或解答的设问, 引出自己观点, 适用于有争议性的话题.

  Should/What ...... ? Options of ... vary greatly , some ..., others ...

  But in my opinion , ...... .

  Chapter 2 文章中间主体内容句型

  原因结果分析

  3-1-1. 基本原因 --- 分析某事物时, 用此句型说明其基本的或者多方面的原因.

  e.g:

  [1]. Why ... ? For one thing.. For another ...

  [2]. The answer to this problem invovles many factors. For one thing... For another...... Still another ...

  [3]. A number of factors , both physical and psychological affect .... /both individual and social contribute to ....

  3-1-2 另一原因 --------> 在分析了基本原因之后, 再补充一个次要的或者更重要时用!

  e.g:

  [1]. Another important factor is ....

  [2]. ... is also responsible for the change/problem.

  [3]. Certainly , the ... is not the sole reason for .....

  3-1-3 后果影响 --------- 分析某事物可能造成的后果或者带来的影响 .

  e.g: [1]. It will produce a profound/far-reaching effect/impact on....

  [2]. In involves some serious consequence for ........

  比较对照句型

  3-2-1. 两者比较 ---> 比较两事物, 要说出其一超过另一个, 或肯定一事物的优点, 也肯定其缺点的时候用 !

  e.g:

  [1]. The advantages gained from A are much greater than the advantages we gain from B.

  [2]. Indeed, A carries much weight when compared with B.

  [3]. There is no doubt that it has its negative effects as well as positive effects.

  3-2-2 . 两者相同/相似 ------> 比较两事物共同都有或者共同都没有的特点时用!

  e.g: [1]. A and B have several thing in common. They are similar in that.....

  [2]. A bears some sriking resemblance(s) to B.

  Chapter 3 文章结尾形式

  2-1 结论性--------- 通过对文章前面的讨论 ,引出或重申文章的中心思想及观点 .

  e.g:

  [1]. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that .....

  [2]. In summary/In a word , it is more valuable .......

  2-2 后果性------ 揭示所讨论的问题若不解决, 将产生的严重后果.

  e.g:

  [1]. We must call for an immediate method , because the current phenomenon of ... , if allowed to proceed, will surely lead to the heavy cost of .......

  [2]. Obviously , if we ignore/are blind to the problem , there is every chance that .. will be put in danger. 2-3 号召性 -------- 呼吁读者行动起来, 采取行动或提请注意.

  e.g:

  [1]. It is time that we urged an immediate end to the undesirable tendcy of ......

  [2]. It is essential thar effective measures should be taken to correct the tendency.

  2-4 建议性 -------- 对所讨论的问题提出建议性的意见, 包括建议和具体的解决问题的方法.

  [1]. While it cannot be solved immediately, still there are ways. The most popular is .... Another method is ... Still another one is .....

  [2]. Awareness/Recognition of the problem is the first step toward the situation.

  2-5 方向性的结尾方式 ---- 其与建议性的唯一差别就是对问题解决提出总的, 大体的方向或者指明前景. e.g:

  [1]. Many solutions are being offered here , all of them make some sense, but none is adequate enough. The problem should be recognized in a wide way .

  [2]. There is no quick method to the issue of .., but .. might be helpful/benefical.

  [3]. The great challenge today is ...... There is much difficulty , but ........

  2--6 意义性的结尾方式 --------> 文章结尾的时候,从更高的更新的角度指出所讨论的问题的重要性以及其深远的意义!

  e.g:

  [1]. Following these suggestions may not guarantee the success, but the pay off might be worth the effort . It will not only benefit but also benefit .....

  [2]. In any case, whether it is posotive or negative, one thing is certain that it will undoubtedly ..

  英语文章的开头和结尾3

  开头万能公式

  1. 开头万能公式一:名人名言

  有人问了,“我没有记住名言,怎么办?尤其是英语名言?”,很好办:编!

  原理:我们看到的东西很多都是创造出来的,包括我们欣赏的文章也是,所以尽管编,但是一定要听起来很有道理呦!而且没准将来我们就是名人呢!对吧?

  经典句型:

  A proberb says, “ You are only young once.” (适用于已记住的名言)

  It goes without saying that we cannot be young forever. (适用于自编名言)

  更多经典句型:

  As everyone knows, No one can deny that…

  2. 开头万能公式二:数字统计

  原理:要想更有说服力,就应该用实际的数字来说明。

  原则上在议论文当中十不应该出现虚假数字的,可是在考试的时候哪管那三七二十一,但编无妨,只要我有东西写就万事大吉了。所以不妨试用下面的句型:

  According to a recent survey, about 78.9% of the college students wanted to further their study after their graduation.

  看起来这个数字文邹邹的,其实都是编造出来的,下面随便几个题目我们都可以这样编造:

  Honesty:根据最近的一项统计调查显示,大学生向老师请假的理由当中78%都是假的。

  Travel by Bike:根据最近的一项统计调查显示,85%的人在近距离旅行的时候首选的交通工具是自行车。

  Youth:根据最近的一项统计调查显示,在某个大学,学生的课余时间的70%都是在休闲娱乐。

  Five-day Work Week Better than Six-day Work?:根据最近的一项统计调查显示,98%的人同意每周五天工作日。

  更多句型:

  A recent statistics shows that …

  结尾万能公式

  1. 结尾万能公式一:如此结论

  说完了,毕竟要归纳一番,相信各位都有这样的经历,领导长篇大论,到最后终于冒出个“总而言之”之类的话,我们马上停止开小差,等待领导说结束语。也就是说,开头很好,也必然要有一个精彩的结尾,让读者眼前一亮,这样,你就可以拿高分了!比如下面的例子:

  Obviously(此为过渡短语), we can draw the conclusion that good manners arise from politeness and respect for others.

  如果读者很难“显而见之”,但说无妨,就当读者的眼光太浅罢了!

  更多过渡短语:

  to sum up, in conclusion, in brief, on account of this, thus

  更多句型:

  Thus, it can be concluded that…, Therefore, we can find that…

  2. 结尾万能公式二:如此建议

  如果说“如此结论”是结尾最没用的废话,那么“如此建议”应该是最有价值的废话了,因为这里虽然也是废话,但是却用了一个很经典的虚拟语气的句型。拽!

  Obviously, it is high time that we took some measures to solve the problem.

  这里的虚拟语气用得很经典,因为考官本来经常考这个句型,而如果我们自己写出来,你说考官会怎么想呢?

  更多句型:

  Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken.

  Consequently, to solve the problem, some measures should be taken.

  英语文章的开头和结尾3

  结尾万能公式:

  1. 结尾万能公式一:如此结论

  说完了,毕竟要归纳一番,相信各位都有这样的经历,领导长篇大论,到最后终于冒出个“总而言之”之类的话,我们马上停止开小差,等待领导说结束语。也就是说,开头很好,也必然要有一个精彩的结尾,让读者眼前一亮,这样,你就可以拿高分了!比如下面的例子: Obviously(此为过渡短语), we can draw the conclusion that good manners arise from politeness and respect for others.

  如果读者很难“显而见之”,但说无妨,就当读者的眼光太浅罢了!

  更多过渡短语:

  to sum up, in conclusion, in brief, on account of this, thus

  更多句型:

  Thus, it can be concluded that„, Therefore, we can find that„

  2. 结尾万能公式二:如此建议

  如果说“如此结论”是结尾最没用的废话,那么“如此建议”应该是最有价值的废话了,因为这里虽然也是废话,但是却用了一个很经典的虚拟语气的句型。拽!

  Obviously, it is high time that we took some measures to solve the problem. 这里的虚拟语气用得很经典,因为考官本来经常考这个句型,而如果我们自己写出来,你说考官会怎么想呢?

  更多句型:

  Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken.

  Consequently, to solve the problem, some measures should be taken. 写作的“七项基本原则”:

  一、 长短句原则

  工作还得一张一驰呢,老让读者读长句,累死人!写一个短小精辟的句子,相反,却可以起到画龙点睛的作用。而且如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末,也可以揭示主题: As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar.

  如此可见,长短句结合,抑扬顿挫,岂不爽哉?牢记!

  强烈建议:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用一个短句解释主要意思,然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式,定会让主体部分妙笔生辉!文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。

  二、 主题句原则

  国有其君,家有其主,文章也要有其主。否则会给人造成“群龙无首”之感!相信各位读过一些破烂文学,故意把主体隐藏在文章之内,结果造成我们稀里糊涂!不知所云!所以奉劝各位一定要写一个主题句,放在文章的开头(保险型)或者结尾,让读者一目了然,必会平安无事!

  特别提示:隐藏主体句可是要冒险的!

  To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam(主题句). Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.

  三、 一二三原则

  领导讲话总是第一部分、第一点、第二点、第三点、第二部分、第一点„ 如此罗嗦。可毕竟还是条理清楚。考官们看文章也必然要通过这些关键性的“标签”来判定你的文章是否结构清楚,条理自然。破解方法很简单,只要把下面任何一组的词汇加入到你的几个要点前就清楚了。

  1)first, second, third, last(不推荐,原因:俗)

  2)firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally(不推荐,原因:俗)

  3)the first, the second, the third, the last(不推荐,原因:俗)

  4)in the first place, in the second place, in the third place, lastly(不推荐,原因:俗)

  5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐)

  6)to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐)

  7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐)

  8)most important of all, moreover, finally

  9)on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况)

  10)for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况)

  建议:不仅仅在写作中注意,平时说话的时候也应该条理清楚!

  四、短语优先原则

  写作时,尤其是在考试时,如果使用短语,有两个好处:其一、用短语会使文章增加亮点,如果老师们看到你的文章太简单,看不到一个自己不认识的短语,必然会看你低一等。

  相反,如果发现亮点—精彩的短语,那么你的文章定会得高分了。其二、关键时刻思维短路,只有凑字数,怎么办?用短语是一个办法!比如:

  I cannot bear it.

  可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

  I want it.

  可以用短语表达:I am looking forward to it.

  这样字数明显增加,表达也更准确。

  五、多实少虚原则

  原因很简单,写文章还是应该写一些实际的东西,不要空话连篇。这就要求一定要多用实词,少用虚词。我这里所说的虚词就是指那些比较大的词。比如我们说一个很好的时候,不应该之说nice这样空洞的词,应该使用一些诸如generous, humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted, hospital 之类的形象词。再比如:

  走出房间,general的词是:walk out of the room

  但是小偷走出房间应该说:slip out of the room

  小姐走出房间应该说:sail out of the room

  小孩走出房间应该说:dance out of the room

  老人走出房间应该说:stagger out of the room

  所以多用实词,少用虚词,文章将会大放异彩!

  六、多变句式原则

  1)加法(串联)

  都希望写下很长的句子,像个老外似的,可就是怕写错,怎么办,最保险的写长句的方法就是这些,可以在任何句子之间加and, 但最好是前后的句子又先后关系或者并列关系。比如说:

  I enjor music and he is fond of playing guitar.

  如果是二者并列的,我们可以用一个超级句式:

  Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm.

  其它的短语可以用:

  besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover

  2)转折(拐弯抹角)

  批评某人缺点的时候,我们总习惯先拐弯抹角说说他的优点,然后转入正题,再说缺点,这种方式虽然阴险了点,可毕竟还比较容易让人接受。所以呢,我们说话的时候,只要在要点之前先来点废话,注意二者之间用个专这次就够了。

  The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition.

  The coat was thin, but it was warm.

  更多的短语:

  despite that, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding

  3)因果(so, so, so)

  昨天在街上我看到了一个女孩,然后我主动搭讪,然后我们去咖啡厅,然后我们认识了,然后我们成为了朋友„可见,讲故事的时候我们总要追求先后顺序,先什么,后什么,所以然后这个词就变得很常见了。其实这个词表示的是先后或因果关系!

  The snow began to fall, so we went home.

  更多短语:

  then, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, for this reason, so that

  4)失衡句(头重脚轻,或者头轻脚重)

  有些人脑袋大,身体小,或者有些人脑袋小,身体大,虽然我们不希望长成这个样子,可如果真的是这样了,也就必然会吸引别人的注意力。文章中如果出现这样的句子,就更会让考官看到你的句子与众不同。其实就是主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句的变形。 举例:This is what I can do.

  Whether he can go with us or not is not sure.

  同样主语、宾语、表语可以改成如下的复杂成分:

  When to go, Why he goes away„

  5)附加(多此一举)

  如果有了老婆,总会遇到这样的情况,当你再讲某个人的时候,她会插一句说,我昨天见过他;或者说,就是某某某,如果把老婆的话插入到我们的话里面,那就是定语从句和同位语从句或者是插入语。

  I don’t enjoy that book you are reading.

  Mr liu, our oral English teacher, is easy-going.

  其实很简单,同位语--要解释的东西删除后不影响整个句子的构成;定语从句—借用之前的关键词并且用其重新组成一个句子插入其中,但是whom or that 关键词必须要紧跟在先行词之前。

  6)排比(排山倒海句)

  文学作品中最吸引人的地方莫过于此,如果非要让你的文章更加精彩的话,那么我希望你引用一个个的排比句,一个个得对偶句,一个个的不定式,一个个地词,一个个的短语,如此表达将会使文章有排山倒海之势!

  Whether your tastes are modern or traditional, sophisticated or simple, there is plenty in London for you.

  Nowadays, energy can be obtained through various sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, solar heat, the wind and ocean tides.

  We have got to study hard, to enlarge our scope of knowledge, to realize our potentials and to pay for our life. (气势恢宏)

  要想写出如此气势恢宏的句子非用排比不可!

  七、 挑战极限原则

  既然十挑战极限,必然是比较难的,但是并非不可攀!

  原理:在学生的文章中,很少发现诸如独立主格的句子,其实也很简单,只要花上5分钟的时间看看就可以领会,它就是分词的一种特殊形式,分词要求主语一致,而独立主格则不然。比如:

  The weather being fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills.

  Africa is the second largest continent, its size being about three times that of China.

  如果您可一些出这样的句子,不得高分才怪!

  文章主体段落三大杀手锏:

  一、举实例

  思维短路,举实例!提出一个观点,举实例!提出一个方案,举实例!而且者也是我们揭示一个观点最好的方式,任何情况下,只要我们无法继续文章,不管三七二十一,尽管举例子!

  In order to attract more customers, advertisers have adopted every possible stimulative factor in making ads, such as sound, light, colours, cartoon films and human performance. For instance, to advertise a certain food, advertisers will ask an actor or actress to sit at a table and devour the seemingly delicious food while they fime him or her.

  更多句型:

  To take „ as an example, One example is„, Another example is„, for example

  二、做比较

  方法:写完一个要点,比较与之相似的;又写完一个要点,再比较与之相反的;

  世界上没有同样的指纹,没有相同的树叶,文章亦同,只有通过比较,你才会发现二者的相同点(through comparison)和不同点(through contrast)。下面是一些短语: 相似的比较:

  in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner

  相反的比较:

  on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with „, „

  三、换言之

  没话说了,可以换一句话再说,让你的文章在多一些字,或者文邹邹地说,是让读者更充分的理解你的观点。

  实际就是重复重复再重复!下面的句子实际上就三个字 I love you!

  I am enthusiastic about you. That is to say, I love you.

  I am wild about you. In other words, I have fallen in love with you. 或者上面我们举过的例子:

  I cannot bear it.

  可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

  因此可以这样说:I cannot bear it. That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed up with it.

  更多短语:

  in more difficult language, in simpler words, put it more simply

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