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These days, it seems that an increasing number of people are leaving rural areas to live in the city.
Discuss some of the effects of rural depopulation ( migration from the country to the city) and suggest some ways in which this trend could be reversed?
Key words analysis
? rural areas: 郊区, 它的相对词是urban areas
? depopulation: 减少居民，后面括号内的内容是岁这个词的解释
? trend: 趋势，和tide, current同义
? reverse: 使倒转
Possible effects :
Model Essay 1 – Part 1
Rural depopulation is a very important issue in many parts of the world today. In this essay, I will discuss some of the main effects of this problem and also offer some possible solutions to it.
Main body 1
Firstly, it is clear that migration away from the country negatively affects life in the city. Serious environmental and social problems often occur when cities become overcrowded. Problems such as air, water and noise pollution are now increasingly common in urban areas around the world because there are simply too many people living there. Pollution can make city life very uncomfortable indeed and can even cause illness. Beijing is a very good example of this. Overcrowding in cities can also lead to high unemployment (especially in poorer parts of the world) and crime.
Model Essay 1 – Part 2
Main body 2
In order to prevent people from moving away from the country and reduce the size of cities, I feel we must make country life more attractive. In my view, the best way of doing this would be to improve services in the country. One of the main reasons that so many people have left the country is that facilities like shopping centres, cinemas, swimming pools, restaurants, libraries, schools and hospitals are generally better in the city. If such facilities were available in the country, more people would choose to live there. Another effective solution would be for the government to subsidies businesses and workers who move to the country.
n conclusion, I believe we must all recognise how serious this problem is. For the sake of the environment and our own quality of life it is vital that we preserve rural communities.
Since cities have changed a lot, the size ofthe cities has grown enormously. Discuss thecauses and consequence of the enormous sizeof cities.
Nowadays, the maps of cities are updatedfrequently. With the development of city, more andmore suburbs become parts of the city. When thecities in the world are amplifying constantly, peoplediscuss the topic hotly, the causes andconsequence of the enormous cities. Different people have different answers by theirrespective views.
In my opinion, the evolution of society and the development of economy result in thegrowth of the vast size of cities. Since the number of population in every city is increasingcontinually, people need a large amount of space to live in. With the progress of the technology,the output of crops rises sharply. Fewer and fewer farmers are required, as a result, more andmore villages urbanize. The growth of the cities brings us many huge changes.
There are more job opportunities in the cities. For instance, China will hold the OlympicGames in Beijing in 2008. The government is amplifying the size of Beijing to build new gyms inorder to hold it excellently. Obviously, people in the cities could gain a lot of new jobs.
Of course, the enormous size of cities also has bad effects. Pollution is becoming more andmore serious all over the world with the amplification of the cities. For example, thepoisonous gas sent off by factories and automobiles has made the air unhealthy for people tobreathe. Water waste keeps pouring into rivers and lakes; as a result, many water species aredying out. Furthermore, more people the city have, more rubbish we can find.
In a word, since each coin has two sides, we should be acquainted clearly with the reasonswhy the size of the cities has grown enormously and what it will bring us. Thus, we could makefull use of the positive effects and overcome the negative effects.
The world has many towns and cities constructed in previous centuries that are suitable and livable for people in those times. What problems will this cause today and what can be done to solve these problems?
背景句：Globalization and modernization nowadays have considerably outpaced the construction of new cities，which has brought some adverse impacts on people’s life.
话题介绍：Under pressure, the government needs to identify them to reduce complaints from citizens.
主题句：Commercial development gives a facility to urbanization in some cities where the basic infrastructure does not match the needs of enormous flow of dwellers.
平行列举 1：In some cases, the shortage of transportation means that the road would be blocked by vehicles especially during rush hours. This low efficient traffic can have negative implications on business to some extent.
平行列举 2：Apart from stagnated traffic, there are accommodation issues to be considered. This is because the advances of economy surely require large numbers of migrants. If single-storey constructions without necessary facilities including heating, sewage system and even electricity supply take a dominating place in city, it would be difficult for those workers to dwell comfortably.
主题句：To solve the problems identified above, the most influential factor may be the government who is responsible for modifying the old cities.
平行列举：Perhaps viaducts are needed to accommodate more vehicles and underground traffic systems such as railways or underpass tunnels can serve to ease road traffic dramatically. Persuading estate companies to construct more functional concrete jungles would probably be an effective strategy to mitigate the terrible living or working conditions. It would also help to improve the overlook of city if some districts are demolished for central business areas, public parks or statues.
Overall, the governors play a vital role in city development, and tax payers should have the awareness of maintaining their new cities.
impact on... 对...产生影响
to some extent 在某种程度上
it will/would be difficult for sb to do sth 对某人来讲做某事是有困难的
serve to 服务于
play a vital role in 在某方面发挥巨大作用
Some people think a rise in standard of living in a country only seems to benefit cities more than rural areas. What problems may those differences cause? How to solve those problems?
背景句：The industrialization and urbanization of a country have massively improved the living standard of its citizens. However, many people assert that the developmental achievements have benefited cities much more than rural areas and a series of problems have arisen.
话题介绍：This essay will discuss the problems and then offer feasible solutions to cope with the situation.
主题句：The imbalance of economic and social progress between rural and urban areas is starkly visible and have triggered a number of problems.
平行列举：First, the highly developed metropolitan areas have occupied the quality resources of education, medical service, finance, commerce and entertainment, providing numerous opportunities in employment and business. As a result, a large number of young rural dwellers crowd into the city to pursue education, hunt jobs and make investments, directly leading to the severe shortage of available labour force and capital in the underdeveloped places. The loss in population and finance would inevitably worsen the overall economic development in rural districts.
主题句：The second problem resides in the aftermath of rural-urban migration.
平行列举：As a multicultural destination, the city holds a huge population with diverse backgrounds in terms of education, profession, income, social class, and even accent. Individuals from underdeveloped places tend to have less professional competence and personal wealth, due to the lack of educational and commercial resources in rural areas. Such discrepancy might trigger discrimination towards the rural residents who struggle their way through the urban jungle. What's worse, the widening wealth gap might even force the poorer ones to commit crimes to obtain more material possession.
Several solutions could be taken into account to improve the situation. The government should help rural residents exploiting local resources, such as natural landscape and specialty products, to develop industries in tourism and commercial trade. Once the industries are on the rise, job opportunities would be generated, along with a growing business revenue and average income. In addition, more workforce and fund should be invested into the education system in rural areas. If rural dwellers could obtain a specific skill or a certain academic qualification, they would be more professionally competent and employable. Furthermore, legislation and regulation are also required to fight against conduct related to discrimination and violence.
living standard 生活水平
a series of 一系列
cope with 处理，解决
labour force 劳动力
Simon 写作观点集：Cities 城市化
1.Reasons for Urbanization 城市化的原因
People move to cities in search of job opportunities
Cities offer greater employment possibilities and a higher standard of living
People migrate to cities from the countryside
Traditional activities like farming need fewer workers nowadays
2.Negatives of City Life 城市生活的缺点
Life in cities has its drawbacks
The cost of living is higher than in rural areas
Some people d not manage to find work
Housing is usually much more expensive
Homelessness and poverty are common on cities
There is a gap between rich and poor
Life in cities can be extremely stressful
There are problems like traffic congestion and crime
Cities lack a sense of community
People do not even know their neighbor
Cities are sometimes described as “concrete jungles”.
3.Pedestrian Areas 人行道
Pedestrian zones in city centre can improve the local environment
Banning cars encourages people to walk or cycle
Many European cities have built bicycle lanes
Dependence on cars is linked to health problems like obesity
People who walk or cycle regularly are generally healthier
Pedestrian areas are safer and more attractive for both residents and tourists