学习啦【高一英语】 淑航时间：2017-08-25 16:29:43我要投稿
1. The reason why he could not go there was that his grades were too low. 他没能上电影学院是因为他的分数太低了。
1. 句中that引导的表语从句说明主语reason的具体内容，往往被看作是固定句型：The reason is / was that clause. 当主语是reason / cause时，一般不能用because或why引导表语从句，以免造成语意重复。当主语是This / That时，可以由because / why引导表语从句。例如：One reason is that people traveled to America from all European countries.
-- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.
-- Is that ____ you had a few days off?
A. why B. when C. what D. where
2. why在句中是关系副词，引导定语从句，修饰先行词reason，同时它在定语从句中作状语，此时why = for which，但要注意：关系词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时，要用关系代词that或which。
【考例】(2002上海春招)Is this the reason ____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?
A. he explained B. what he explained
C. how he explained D. why he explained
[答案与解析]A what，how不能引导定语从句，排除B、C两项;the reason在定语从句中作explained的宾语，可填that / which，或者也可以省略。
2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the shark. 好多看过这个片子的人一想起片中鲨鱼食人的场面.就不敢下海游泳了。
该句是一个复杂长句，从when到句子末尾是状语从句，在从句中包含一个由which引导的定语从句，修饰先行词scenes; 在前面的主句里面。包含一个由who引导的定语从句，修饰先行词people。例如：Those who want to go camping next Sunday sign your name here before class is over.
定语从句关系词的选择，要遵循“瞻前顾后”的原则，所谓“瞻前”即看前面的先行词指人还是指物;“顾后”即后面的定语从句，看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分。例如：This is the factory where he works. (状语) / This is the factory (that / which) he visited. (宾语)
【考例】(NMET 1992)In the dark street，there wasn't a single person ____ she could turn for help.
A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom
[答案与解析]D “turn to sb for help”为固定短语，意思是“向某人求助”，所以选to whom。
3. When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spielberg said that he owes much of his success and happiness to his wife and children. 当有人问起他成功的秘诀时。史蒂文?斯皮尔伯格说起他的成功和幸福主要来自于妻子和孩子。
该句中的 "when" 是时间状语从句的省略形式。在状语从句中，如果从句主语与主句主语一致或从句主语是it，而且从句谓语动词是be或包含be时，常常将从句主语与be省略。例如：Although born in Chicago, the author is famous for his stories about New York.
【考例】 (2003上海春招) Unless ___to speak，you should remain silent at the conference.
A. invited B. inviting
C. being invited D. having invited
[答案与解析]A unless为连词，后面省略了you are，所以选invited。
1. win, beat, defeat 表示获胜、取胜的词语
(1) win v. 赢……，获胜，接比赛或奖项 win a game / a prize / an honor / a race. / Our team won the game 8 to 7. / He won by five points. / He won her love at last. / He won the first place in the competition.
(2) beat + 对手，表打败(尤指体育比赛) I can easily beat him at golf.
(3) defeat 表战胜，接对手The enemy was defeated in the battle.
2. in the end, finally, at last
finally 一般用在句中动词前面，而 at last 与 in the end 的位置则较为灵活;
三者中at last 语气最为强烈，且可单独作为感叹句使用。After putting it off three times, we finally managed to have a holiday in Dalian. / At last he knew the meaning of life. / At last! Where on earth have you been? / But in the end he gave in.
另外，finally还可用在列举事项时，引出最后一个内容，相当于lastly。 Firstly, we should make a plan; secondly, we should carry it out; finally we should make a conclu- sion.
3. by sea, by the sea, in the sea, on the sea, at sea
(1) by sea “走海路，乘船”，用来表示交通方式，同 by ship 同义。 These heavy boxes should be sent by sea.
(2) by the sea “在海边”，相当于 by (at) the seaside。The children enjoyed themselves by the sea on Children's Day.
(3) in the sea “在海里，在海水中” There are many plants and animals in the sea.
(4) on the sea “在海面上”，“在海岸边”。I want to live in a town with a beautiful position on the sea.
(5) at sea 在海上;在航海 When he woke up, the ship was at sea.
4. be afraid, be afraid to do sth., be afraid of (doing) sth.
(1) be afraid 意为“担心，害怕”，多用于口语，常用来表示一种歉意，或遗憾，后可接 so 或 not，也可接 that 从句。I'm afraid (that) 其语意相当于 I'm sorry, but...。
-- Are we on time? 我们准时吗? -- I'm afraid not. 恐怕不准时。I'm afraid you'll get caught in the rain.
(2) be afraid to do sth 常表示“由于胆小而不敢做某事”。She is afraid to be here alone. / He is afraid to jump into the river from the bridge.
(3) be afraid of (doing) sth. 常表示“担心或害怕某事(发生)”。I was afraid of hurting her feelings.
5. live, living, alive, lively
(1) live adj.
① 活的;活生生的;(只修饰生物;只作前置定语) The laboratory is doing experiments with several live monkeys.
② 实况直播的 (不是录音)It wasn't a recorded show. It was live.
③ 带电的;燃着的;可爆炸的 This is a live wire.
(2) living adj. 活着的，有生命的(作表语或定语) She was, he thought, the best living novelist in England. / The old man is still living. (或alive)
(3) alive adj. ① 活着的;② 有活力的;有生气
作后置定语：Who's the greatest man alive?
作表语：Was the snake alive or dead? / My grandmother is more alive than a lot of young people.
作补语：Let's keep the fish alive.
(4) lively adj. 活泼的;有生气的;活跃的(作表语或定语) The music is bright and lively.
1. can't help doing sth. 禁不住做某事，不由得不做某事
She couldn't hep smiling.
(1) can't help but do 不得不……;不能不 When the streets are full of melting snow, you can't help but get your shoes wet.
(2) cannot but 不能不，只能He could not but feel disappointed.
(1) help (sb.) (to) do sth. Help me get him back to bed at once. / By helping them we are helping save ourselves.
(2) help...with sth. 帮助……做某事 In those days he used to help her mother with her gardening.
(3) help oneself / sb. to sth. 给自己 / 别人夹菜 / 拿烟
等;擅自拿用 May I help you to some more vegetables?
(4) help...in sth. 在……方面帮助某人 She offered to help Rose in the housekeeping when I am not here.
(5) help out 帮忙 (做事;克服困难等) I've often helped Bob out when he's been a bit short of money.
① go around 到处走/跑.(疾病)流传，(谣言)传开;go after 追求;go ahead 说吧，请吧，做吧;go away 离开，出去
② go back 走网头路，翻悔改变;go bad 变坏;go boating 去划船
③ go fishing 去钓鱼;go for a walk去 散步
④ go hiking 去徒步旅行;go home 回家
⑤ go in for 喜爱，从事于;go into 进入，加入
⑥ go mad 发疯
⑦ go off 离去，去世;go on 继续，进展，依据;go on doing 继续做;go out 出去，发出去，熄灭，不时兴;go over 研究，检查，搜查
⑧ go shopping 去商店;go skating 去滑冰;go straight along 沿着;go swimming 去游泳
⑨ go through 通过，经受，仔细检查;go to bed 上床
⑩ go up 上升
[例句] We'll go through the items one by one. 我们要逐条研究。She has gone back to her old habits. 她又回到了已往的习惯。Come on Sunday by yourself - we can go over the house together. 星期天你要过来.我们一起检查一下房子。His speech went on for so long that people began to fall asleep. 他的演讲持续很长时间，结果人们开始想睡。That expression has gone out. Nobody Uses it today. 那个短语已经过时了，现在没有人在用它。The young fellow hasn't realized that he has gone wrong. 这个年轻人还没有意识到他已经误入歧途。Tired of going shopping with his wife，Mr. Liu pretended to have something important to do. 厌烦与妻子一起去购物，刘先生假装有重要的事情要做。
【考例2】(2004北京) I don't ____ rock' n' roll. It's much too noisy for my taste.
A. go after B. go away with
C. go into D. go in for
[答案与解析]D go after 追求;go away with 带走;go into进入，加入;go in for 喜爱，爱好。根据句子意思“摇滚音乐太嘈杂。不合乎我的口味.所以我不喜欢”。
【考例】(NMET 1998) Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ____.
A. be put up B. give in
C. be turned on D. go out
[答案与解析] D put up 挂起;give in 屈服;turn on 打开;go out 熄灭。本句话意思是“没有人注意到贼溜进了屋子，因为灯碰巧熄灭了”。
3. go wrong
(2) 失败;不顺利All our plans went wrong. / Everything went wrong in those days.
(3)发生故障 The clock went wrong.
(1) go 表示由积极向消极方面变化Fish soon goes bad in hot weather. 又如：go mad / pale / blind / hungry
(2) become / get 表示由积极向消极或消极向积极方
面变化 The weather is getting quite warm. / Gradually he became silent.
(3) turn 多接表颜色的词 This ink turns black when it dries. / He used to be a teacher till he turned writer.
注意：become a writer
(4) grow 侧重变化过程 The sea is growing calm.
(5) fall 进入某种状态 All three children fell asleep.